GEOG 150-- NOTES

GEOG 150-- NOTES - GEOG 150 4/27/11 What explains...

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GEOG 150 4/27/11 What explains under-representation among groups? 1. Biological explanations 2. Behavioral Explanations (personal choice or lack of effort) 3. Institutional or structural explanations - factors the individual can not control, larger than the individual. -inequality of opportunity Mitochondrial DNA -passed on complete by the mother -mutates at a known rate Environmental Determinism -the physical environment is the dominant force shaping culture i.e. Dessert dwellers are likely to live under the rule of tyrants…People from the hot humid tropics are lazy and destined to live in poverty… Coastlands with fjords produce great navigators and fishermen Assimilation “melting pot” -complete blending with host culture (loss of ethnic traits) Acculturation “salad bowl” -adopt enough ways of host society to function economically and socially 5/2/11 State or country -organized political unit ruled by an established government. 194 countries/states in the world today -Countries have sovereignty (control over internal and external affairs) -65 dependencies or areas of special sovereignty Hong Kong (SAR) -former British colony—returned to China in 1997 Macao (SAR) --former Portuguese colony—returned to China in 1999 Antartica -only large land mass not part of a sovereign state -claims by 7 countries -U.S. recognizes no claims -1.5 times the size of U.S. Monaco (a microstate)
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Vatican City (the world’s smallest country) World Culture Hearth’s The Beginings of civilization The Fertile Crescent Sumaria (6,000 B.C.) Babylon on the Euphrates (4,000 B.C.) Ancient Egypt in the Nile Valley (3,000 B.C.) Mesopotamia—“land between the rivers”—Tigris and Euphrates river Modern Nation State in Europe SPAIN= first modern nation state in the world Colonialism Shapes of States -Compacted -Prorupted—kind of like compacted except it has extensions Fragmented—i.e. Indonesia has 13,000 islands Perforated- Lesotho in South Africa Elongated- i.e. Chile Landlocked States - no direct access to the ocean Boundaries - Physical or cultural - Great Wall of China= cultural boundary Frontier vs Boundary - Ireland, a British Colony 1642-1922 - Northern 6 counties (70% Protestant) stayed with UK - Republic of Ireland (95% Catholic) Gerrymandering - drawing boundaries of voting districts so as to favor one political party over another Proportional Representation http://www.stumbleupon.com/su/17tOig/8tracks.com/ajmz28/beer-pong-kingz German Elections
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- Bundestag has 598 seats - 299 first vote, single seat constituencies (first past the post) - 299 second vote state party lists (proportional representation) Measuring Political Freedom Gender Empowerment - 5/4/11 Multinational states/multiethnic states- countries with 2 or more ethnic groups or
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GEOG 150-- NOTES - GEOG 150 4/27/11 What explains...

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