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plugin-Chemistry_Review_Manual - Chemistry Review Manual...

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Page 1 of 42 Chemistry Review Manual Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology McMaster University 2011 Dr. R. S. Dumont and Dr. P. E. Lock
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Page 2 of 42 Table of Contents 1. The Mole 4 1.1 How do we use the mole? Counting atoms and molecules 4 Example 1.1 How many helium atoms? 4 Example 1.2: How many water molecules? 5 1.2 Balancing Chemical Reactions 5 Example 1.3: Balance the following chemical reactions 5 1.3 Stoichiometry and limiting reactant 6 Example 1.4: Limiting reactant and yield 6 1.4 Density 7 Example 1.5: Mass of 1 mL cube of copper 7 Example 1.6: Mass of 1 m 3 cube of copper 7 1.5 Solutions 8 Example 1.7: How much HCl? 8 Example 1.8: Water volume added to achieve dilution 8 1.6 Titration and solution stoichiometry 9 Example 1.9: Titration of NaOH solution 9 Example 1.10: Titration of Na 2 CO 3 solution 9 Problems 10 Solutions 11 2. The Ideal Gas Law 13 2.1 The Gas Laws 13 Example 2.1: Molar mass of a gas 13 Example 2.2: Temperature change accompanying volume change 14 Example 2.3: Pressure change accompanying volume change 14 Example 2.4: Temperature change accompanying pressure change 15 Example 2.5: Yield of HCl 15 2.2 Partial Pressure 16 Example 2.6: The mole fraction of water in saturated air 16 Problems 17 Solutions 18 3. Acids and bases 21 3.1 Brønsted-Lowry Theory 21 Example 3.1: Identify acid and base in a given reaction 21 3.2 Strong and Weak Acids and Bases 22 Table 3.1. Strong acids and a few weak acids 23 Table 3.2. Strong bases and a few weak bases 23 Example 3.2: Ordering acids and bases according to strength 24 3.3 Types of Acids and Bases 24 Table 3.3. Oxoacids and oxoanions 25 Table 3.4. Some simple organic acids and bases 26 Problems 26 Solutions 28 4. Bonding 30 4.1 Types of Bonding 30 Example 4.1: Type of bonding 30 4.2 Solutions 31 Figure 4.1 Solvation of sodium and chloride ions in aqueous solution 32 Figure 4.2 Lewis structure and molecular shape of water 32 Figure 4.3. Lewis structure of CCl 4 33
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Page 3 of 42 Example 4.2: Electrolyte solutions 33 Example 4.3: Pairs of compounds forming solutions 34 Problems 34 Solutions 36 5. Math Skills 38 5.1 Scientific Notation 38 Example 5.1: Scientific notation 38 Table 5.1. Units of Distance 38 5.2 Dimensional Analysis 39 Example 5.2: How many Cu atoms are there in a penny? 39 5.3 Solving for a variable 40 Example 5.3: New concentration after dilution 40 Example 5.4: Two equations and two unknowns 40 5.4 Logarithms 41 Periodic Table of the Elements 42
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Page 4 of 42 1. The Mole Early chemists discovered that substances combine in certain combinations to form new substances. For example, 32 g (grams) of oxygen combines with 4 g of hydrogen to form 36 g of water. Also, 32 g of oxygen combines with 12 g of carbon to form 44 g of carbon dioxide. Eventually people realized that substances are made of atoms, and that atoms combine in specific ratios. The various combinations of masses that were observed to react is explained when we account for different atoms having different masses.
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