half of exam 2 objectives

half of exam 2 objectives - Oceans and Shorelines 1 Be able...

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Oceans and Shorelines 1. Be able to reproduce the hydrologic cycle and the formula for the hydrologic budget of a watershed. Comets and volcanoes are the main sources for the bodies of water we have today. The total precipitation is equal to the sum of runoff, infiltration, and evaporative transpiration. The sun powers most of the movement of water. 2. What percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by ocean? 71% of the Earth’s surface is covered by ocean (more of the water is in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere). 3. What percent of ocean water is dissolved salt? 3.5% of the ocean water is dissolved salts. 4. Which is most dense: a) salty or fresh water/ b) warm or cold water? Cold water is denser than hot water. Water that is more saline is denser. 5. What drives surface currents, and what drives deep ocean currents? Downwelling (surface water sinking to the bottom) drives deep currents. Surface currents have upwelling, and are driven primarily by wind. 6. What effect do these currents have on the heat distribution of the planet? Heat energy will move away from the equator towards the poles. These currents (conveyor belt movements) make the Equator cooler and the Poles warmer; they have an effect on climate.
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7. What causes tides? When do you get the highest and lowest high tides, what are they called, and what astronomical configuration gives rise to each? Tides are caused by the gravitational pull from the Sun on the Earth. Spring tides are the strongest of all tides, and they occur when the Moon, the Earth, and the Sun are in a straight line (new moon, full moon). Neap tides are the weakest of all tides; they occur when the Sun and the Moon are perpendicular to the Earth (first quarter moon, third quarter moon (you see “half” of the moon)). 8. What effect do tides have on the Earth’s rotation? Tides oppose Earth’s rotation (significant friction) and the moon is moving away from the Earth. Every century, a day gets .001 s longer. 9. Where are the most severe tides in the world? The Bay of Fundy experiences the most severe tides. 10. Know what factors affect the size and power of waves. The three things that affect wave size/power are wind speed, wind duration, and fetch. A faster, longer-lasting wind makes bigger waves. Wave size further increases the farther over the water the wind blows. 11. On a picture showing a series of waves, be able to label the following features: crest, trough, wavelength (L), wave base. The crest is the top of the wave surface, and the trough is the bottom of the wave surface. The wavelength is the distance from crest to crest, or trough to trough. The wave base is the highest level of the water where the circular flow from the wave cannot be felt. The wave base is roughly half the wavelength. 12.
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This note was uploaded on 10/24/2011 for the course SYGN 101 taught by Professor Shorey during the Spring '08 term at Mines.

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half of exam 2 objectives - Oceans and Shorelines 1 Be able...

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