04+Lean_Manufacturing_5SPrinciple - The Seven Wastes Found...

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Unformatted text preview: The Seven Wastes Found in Manufacturing Manufacturing 1. Waste of Waiting time 2. Transportation waste 3. Processing waste 4. Inventory waste 5. Waste of motion 6. Waste from overproduction 7. Waste from product defects The Nine Wastes Defined by Cannon Cannon 1. Waste Caused by Work-inProcess 2. Waste Caused by Defects 3. Processing waste 4. Waste in Equipment 5. Waste in Expense 6. Waste in Planning 7. Waste in Human Resources 8. Waste in Operations 9. Waste in Startup LEAN MANUFACTURING PARADIGM PARADIGM Lean production is “lean” because it Lean uses less of everything compared with mass production. • • • • • Half the human effort in the factory Half the manufacturing space Half the investment tools Half the engineering effort Half the time to develop new products LEAN MANUFACTURING PARADIGM PARADIGM It is difficult to give a precise It definition of Lean manufacturing or leanness. However, there are some desirable characteristics of Lean Manufacturing we will talk about in this course. this Conventional vs. Lean Manufacturing Manufacturing Operational Characteristics Conventional Manufacturing Setup time L ong L size ot L arge Inventory L arge F loor space L arge Transportation L ong L time ead L ong Defect rate High Machine trouble high L ean Manufacturing Short Small Small Small Short Short L ow L ow Conventional vs. Lean Manufacturing Manufacturing Organizational Characteristics Structure O rientation Communication A greement Union focus Skill base Suppliers E ducation/ Training CoC : Chain of command Conventional Rigid L ean F lexible L ocal O ptimization G lobal O ptimization L ong CoC O CoC pen Contract-based Trust-based Company-based Skill-based Narrow Broad (flexible) Many Select few Insignificant Significant A Road Map for Lean Manufacturing Journey Waste elimination TPM Just-in-time TQC Kanban Leveled/mixed production Five Whys Short production lead time Cycle time control Standardized work Autonomation (Jidoka) Visual Control Andon (visual lights) Kanban Multi-process handling Small lot production Flow production Production control boards Operations improvement Layout improvement Reduced setup time (SMED) Equipment improvement Poka-Yoke (mistakeproof) Line stop Workplace organization (5S) SPC Elements of Lean Manufacturing Manufacturing Education of Top Management Two Year Network of Improvement Support and Strategy Guidance Lean Journey Company Culture Training and Education of All Improvement Projects Kaizen (Continuous Kaizen Continuous Improvement) Improvement Kaizen means improvement. Moreover, Kaizen means continuous improvement in personal life, home life, social life, and working life. When applied to the workplace KAIZEN means continuing improvement involving everyone-managers and workers alike. Kaizen (Continuous Kaizen Continuous Improvement) Improvement Kaizen is a culture of sustained continuous improvement focusing on eliminating waste in all systems and processes of an organization. Kaizen transforms companies into "Superior Global Competitors." Two Elements of Kaizen Improvement/Change for the better a Ongoing/continuity a Cycle of Improvement Cycle Reduce waste Increase profit Reduce cycle time Reduce WIP Increase sales Improve quality Kaizen Implementation Requirements Requirements Kaizen should be implemented by the lower/middle level management and workers, with the encouragement and direction from the top. The top management responsibility is to cultivate a Kaizen working climates and cultures in the organization. Wet Blankets That Discourage Kaizen Discourage I am too busy to study it. a It's a good idea, but the timing is premature. a It is not in the budget. a Theory is different from practice. a Isn't there something else for you to do? a I think it doesn't match corporate policy. a Wet Blankets That Discourage Kaizen (cont’d) Discourage It isn't our business; let someone else think about it . a Are you dissatisfied with your work? a It's not improvement, it's common sense. a I know the result, even if we don't do it. a I will not be held accountable for it. a Basic Tips for Kaizen Activities Discard conventional fixed ideas. a Think of how to do it, not why it cannot be done. a Do not make excuses. Start by questioning current practices. a Do not seek perfection. Do it right away even if for only 50% of target. a Basic Tips for Kaizen Activities (Cont’d) a a a a a a Correct it right away, if you make mistake. Do not spend money for KAIZEN, use your wisdom. Wisdom is brought out when faced with hardship. Ask 'WHY?" five times and seek root causes. Seek the wisdom of ten people rather than the knowledge of one. KAIZEN ideas are infinite. Ask “Why” Five Times a Then you will go 5-level deep into your cause-and-effect diagram man machine Process capability? (effect) material method (causes) 5-WHY EXAMPLE 5-WHY a “Why did the robot stop?” The circuit has overloaded, causing a fuse to blow. 2. “Why is the circuit overloaded?” 2. “Why There was insufficient lubrication on the bearings, so they There locked up. locked 3. “Why was there insufficient lubrication on the bearings?” 3. “Why The oil pump on the robot is not circulating sufficient oil. 4. “Why is the pump not circulating sufficient oil?” 4. “Why The pump intake is clogged with metal shavings. 5. “Why is the intake clogged with metal shavings?” 5. “Why Because there is no filter on the pump. 5 Ss of Kaizen (in Japanese) Ss 1. Seiri: Distinguish between the necessary and Distinguish unnecessary and discard the later. unnecessary 2. Seiton: Arrange all items in an orderly manner. 3. Seiso: Keep Machines and working environment Keep clean. clean. 4. Seiketsu: Extend the concept of cleanliness to Extend oneself and practice the above three steps. oneself 5. Shitsuke: Build self discipline and make a habit Build of engaging in 5S by establishing standards. of 5 Ss of Kaizen (in the west) Ss 1. Sort: Distinguish between the necessary and Distinguish unnecessary and discard the later. unnecessary 2. Straighten: Arrange all items in an orderly Arrange manner. manner. 3. Scrub: Keep Machines and working environment Keep clean. clean. 4. Systematize: Extend the concept of cleanliness to Extend oneself and practice the above three steps. oneself 5. Standardize: Build self discipline and make a Build habit of engaging in 5S by establishing standards. standards. People’s Time in a Typical Factory Factory Value Added Waste Material Time in a Typical Factory Factory Value Added Waste Machine Time in a Typical Factory Factory Value Added Waste Waste (Muda) Waste Waste is anything other than the minimum Waste anything amount of equipment, materials, parts, space, and worker’s time, which are absolutely essential absolutely to add value to the product. to 3 Ms MUDA : In Japanese muda means muda Waste. However, it carries a much deeper connotation. In manufacturing Muda refers to any Muda activity that does not add value. activity 3 Ms MURA : In Japanese mura means irregularity. Whenever a smooth flow of work is interrupted in an operator’s work, the flow of parts or machines, or the production schedule, there is mura. mura 3 Ms MURI : In Japanese muri means strenuous conditions for both workers and machines as well as for the work processes. Although muri muri does not imply mura or muda mura muda immediately, it will turn into one if left unattended. left 12 Principles of Process Improvement Improvement 1. Organize the workplace 2. Develop Quick Setup 3. Eliminate transportation loss 4. Develop fixtures for one-touch Develop placement and automatic ejection placement 5. Introduce multi-process handling 6. Synchronize process 12 Principles of Process Improvement (Cont’d) Improvement (Cont’d) 7. Use transfer lot size of one 8. Introduce Jidoka (Autonomation) Introduce concepts concepts 9. Introduce Poka-Yoke (mistake proof) & Introduce Statistical process control Statistical 10. Eliminate machine troubles 11. Operate on Takt time (cycle time) 12. Standardize work procedures Simplify, Combine, and Eliminate Eliminate a Simplify • • • • • • • setup operations tool access instructions design distinction material handling operations Simplify, Combine, and Eliminate Eliminate a Combine • • • • multi machine assignments load and unload operations separate functions and operations production and inspection Simplify, Combine, and Eliminate Eliminate a Eliminate Waste of Waiting time Transportation waste Processing waste Inventory waste Waste of motion Waste from overproduction Waste from product defects THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING LEAN • Elimination of Waste • Equipment Reliability • Process Capability • Continuous Flow • Material flows one part at a time • Less inventory • Reduced defects • Lead time reduction • Error proofing THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING LEAN • Stop the line quality system • Kanban system • Standard Work • Visual management • In station process control • Level production • Takt time • Quick changeover Deming's 14 Points Deming's Deming's Fourteen Points is a summary of Dr. Deming's philosophy on quality management. It describes what is necessary for a business to survive and be competitive today. The fourteen points are: 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. Create constancy of purpose toward the improvement of products and Create purpose services in order to become competitive, stay in business, and provide jobs. Adopt the new philosophy. Management must learn that it is a new Adopt new Management economic age and awaken to the challenge, learn their responsibilities, and take on leadership for change. Stop depending on inspection to achieve quality. Build in quality from inspection the start. Stop awarding contracts on the basis of low bids. Stop Improve continuously and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly reduce costs. Institute training on the job. Institute training Deming's 14 Points Deming's 7. 8. 8. 9. 9. 10. 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. Institute leadership. The purpose of leadership should be to Institute leadership The help people and technology work better. Drive out fear so that everyone may work effectively. Break down barriers between departments so that people can Break work as a team. team Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for work force. They create adversarial relationships. Eliminate quotas and management by objectives. Substitute Substitute leadership. Remove barriers that rob employees of their pride of Remove workmanship. Institute a vigorous program of education and selfInstitute education improvement. Make the transformation everyone's job and put everyone to Make transformation work on it. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/25/2011 for the course EIN 4401 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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