Chinn+pages+28-53 - Chapter 2 page 28 CHAPTER 2 Theories of...

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Chapter 2, page 28 CHAPTER 2 Theories of Learning Chapter Outline Reflecting on student thinking Information Processing Theory Sensory Register Working Memory, or Short-term Memory Perception and Rehearsal Long-term Memory Encoding Retrieval Forgetting Constructivism Learners Learners actively construct their own understandings of the world Knowledge construction is driven forward by challenges Learning Environments Learning environments should center around learners’ choices and learning goals Learners engage in authentic tasks relevant to their lives Learning centers around student inquiry and higher-order thinking Learners engage in authentic activities Learning from others Students learn from collaborating with other students Teachers are facilitators and orchestrators, not information providers Summary Applications Applied goals Learning from observation. Social cognitive theory will help you think about how to set up conditions in your classroom so that students can learn by observing other students and yourself. You will also learn how discourage students from learning things from observation that you would rather that they not learn. Promoting memory and understanding. You will apply ideas from information processing theory throughout this text. In this chapter, you will learn initial ideas about how to promote effective methods of remembering information. You will learn strategies that your students can use to remember more of what they are learning. You will learn about how the limitations of short-term memory are a major bottleneck to learning, and what you can do to try to help your students. Promoting constructivist learning. You will also apply ideas of constructivism throughout this text. In this chapter, you will learn some initial ideas about how learners construct knowledge, how to set up learning environments, and the role of teachers and peers. Much of what you learn in later chapters will elaborate on these ideas. You will also learn about a theory of learning (the transmissionist theory) that many teachers and students hold, but that is an ineffective way to promote learning. Here you will learn some important ideas about what not to do in the classroom. Reflecting on Student Thinking You are about to read about four major theories of learning. This Reflection will help you start thinking about one of these theories, information processing theory, which presents a detailed model of human memory. You will recall from Chapter 1 that the purpose of these Reflections at the beginning of each chapter is to prepare you for future learning by doing some initial thinking about real learning phenomena. It is not necessary to come up with a particular answer; the goal is to reflect on the data presented below so that you can begin to develop ideas about memory phenomena as you read through
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Chapter 2, page 29 this chapter. Below, you will read about an experiment investigating how memory works and develops. You will
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Chinn+pages+28-53 - Chapter 2 page 28 CHAPTER 2 Theories of...

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