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Biol_1001_Chap4 - 1 NOTES FOR BIOLOGY 1001 SECTIONS 003 and...

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NOTES FOR BIOLOGY 1001 SECTIONS 003 and 007 Fall 2011 DR. STEVEN POMARICO, INSTRUCTOR CHAPTER 4 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION >>>Some of the basics The cell is the smallest living unit. >>>Genetic material in cells is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Where is the DNA stored? Remember --- Prokaryotic versus Eukaryotic PROKARYOTES EUKARYOTES Found only in the Kingdom Monera Found in the Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia No nucleus or nuclear envelope Nucleus with a nuclear envelope DNA in a “ nucleoid region DNA within the nucleus No organelles or internal membranes Contains cytosol with membrane- bound organelles --- Nucleoid is a dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell 1
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--- Cytoplasm is the entire region inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus in cells that have a nucleus (i.e., most eukaryotic cells). >>>Eukaryotes are much more complex The inside of the eukaryotic cell is compartmentalized into organelles --- Organelles are one of several compartments suspended in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Organelles include: 1) Nucleus 2) Endoplasmic reticulum 3) Golgi complex 4) Vesicles 5) Mitochondrion 6) Chloroplasts (in plants) Why compartmental organization? -Provide localized environmental conditions necessary for specific metabolic process. -Sequester reactions, so they may occur without interference from incompatible metabolic processes elsewhere in the cell.
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