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Unformatted text preview: 1 Locomotion BIOL1040 August 2010 Readings: Campbell (2006), pp. 1075-1076, 438-465, 703-704. Campbell et al ., (2009), pp. 1133-1135, 716-744. Prof. Mike Bennett [email protected] 81-417 Otto Hirschfeld Learning Objectives • To appreciate the importance of coordinated movement that most animals employ during life • To understand that movement can be produced by different means • To appreciate the different constraints of moving on To appreciate the different constraints of moving on land, through the air or in water • To use examples to learn how musculoskeletal speations confer different advantages on their owners • To explore why the human walking gait is economical Sources of power for movement : • Muscles • Cilia / flagella • Cytoplasmic streaming Why do organisms need to move? • Find food • Escape from danger (role also for camouflage) • Look for mates Movement requires energy (i e cellular work) • Dispersal (gene mixing, new habitats, reduce competition) (i.e. cellular work) • To overcome friction • To overcome gravity Why the diversity in movement forms? • Evolution favours structures that increase fitness (force of natural selection) What is evolution? Change in genetic composition of a population over time Driving forces of evolution: • Mutation – changes in nucleotide sequence (ultimate source of variation) • Genetic drift – Random change – Important in small populations • Selection (natural, sexual) Selection (natural, sexual) – Filters variation (leads to adaptation) – Depends on survival and reproductive success • Gene flow – Movement of alleles between populations – Aided by migration, but migration itself is not enough 2 Locomotion in water Locomotor styles: • Undulation • Flapping • Rowing • Jet propulsion Gravity not so much of a problem as most animals are reasonably buoyant Mackerels Gas bladders...
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This note was uploaded on 10/25/2011 for the course BIOL 1040 taught by Professor Assocproflesleylluka during the Two '10 term at Queensland.
- Two '10