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2010_Sem2_Locomotion_6B&W

2010_Sem2_Locomotion_6B&W - BIOL1040 August 2010...

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1 Locomotion BIOL1040 August 2010 Readings: Campbell (2006), pp. 1075-1076, 438-465, 703-704. Campbell et al ., (2009), pp. 1133-1135, 716-744. Prof. Mike Bennett [email protected] 81-417 Otto Hirschfeld Learning Objectives To appreciate the importance of coordinated movement that most animals employ during life To understand that movement can be produced by different means To appreciate the different constraints of moving on land, through the air or in water To use examples to learn how musculoskeletal specialisations confer different advantages on their owners To explore why the human walking gait is economical Sources of power for movement : • Muscles Cilia / flagella • Cytoplasmic streaming Why do organisms need to move? Find food Escape from danger (role also for camouflage) Look for mates Movement requires energy (i e cellular work) Dispersal (gene mixing, new habitats, reduce competition) (i.e. cellular work) To overcome friction To overcome gravity Why the diversity in movement forms? Evolution favours structures that increase fitness (force of natural selection) What is evolution? Change in genetic composition of a population over time Driving forces of evolution: Mutation changes in nucleotide sequence (ultimate source of variation) Genetic drift Random change Important in small populations Selection (natural, sexual) Filters variation (leads to adaptation) Depends on survival and reproductive success Gene flow Movement of alleles between populations Aided by migration, but migration itself is not enough
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