1Locomotion BIOL1040August 2010Readings:Campbell (2006), pp. 1075-1076, 438-465, 703-704.Campbell et al., (2009), pp. 1133-1135, 716-744. Prof. Mike Bennett[email protected]81-417 Otto HirschfeldLearning Objectives•To appreciate the importance of coordinated movement that most animals employ during life•To understand that movement can be produced by different means•To appreciate the different constraints of moving on land, through the air or in water•To use examples to learn how musculoskeletal specialisations confer different advantages on their owners•To explore why the human walking gait is economicalSources of power for movement :• Muscles•Cilia / flagella• Cytoplasmic streamingWhy do organisms need to move?•Find food•Escape from danger (role also for camouflage)•Look for matesMovement requires energy (i e cellular work)•Dispersal (gene mixing, new habitats, reduce competition)(i.e. cellular work)•To overcome friction•To overcome gravityWhy the diversity in movement forms?•Evolution favours structures that increase fitness (force of natural selection)What is evolution?Change in genetic composition of a population over time Driving forces of evolution:•Mutation –changes in nucleotide sequence (ultimate source of variation) •Genetic drift–Random change–Important in small populations•Selection (natural, sexual)–Filters variation (leads to adaptation)–Depends on survival and reproductive success•Gene flow–Movement of alleles between populations–Aided by migration, but migration itself is not enough
has intentionally blurred sections.
Sign up to view the full version.