rewards - www.abcbodybuilding.com Rewards 1 The Effects of...

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www.abcbodybuilding.com Rewards 1 The Effects of External Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation Researched and Composed by Gabriel “Venom” Wilson, BSc. (Hons), CSCS Abstract For over 30 years now, there has been an intense debate on the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation. The answer to this question appears to depend on two properties of a reward: control and information. Though many professions have utilized rewards to control behavior with students, athletes, and children, it appears that this very controlling mechanism is what undermines intrinsic motivation. Conversely, an informational message of competency can enhance intrinsic motivation. Therefore, the way the reward is delivered will determine its effects on intrinsic motivation. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to analyze the effects of various rewards on intrinsic motivation. Rewards will be analyzed using the well established Cognitive Evaluation Theory. Introduction We shall begin this article with a short story (McCullagh, 2005). Once there was a man, who lived in a house and had a lawn. And kids would come to play on this mans lawn to have fun. The man began to be annoyed by this, and decided to do something about it. So, strangely enough...he paid them a dollar to come play on his lawn. The kids happily took the dollar and played on his lawn. The next day, the man told the kids that he did not have enough money, so he could only give them 50 cents to come play on his lawn. On the third day, he told them he could only give them a nickel to come play on his lawn. The kids were displeased with this, and told the man he could forget that, and that they would not play on his lawn for such a cheap reward. What happened? These kids played on his lawn before for absolutely nothing, but now, they quit playing, even though they were offered a nickel! Well, it just so happens that this man understood an important concept in Sport Psychology. That is, the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation Motivation can be defined as the intensity and direction of effort (McCullagh, 2005). Intensity refers to the quantity of effort, while direction refers to what you are drawn too. Evidence suggests that enhanced motivation promotes learning, performance, enjoyment, and persistence in sport, among other benefits (McCullagh, 2005; Wilson, 2005). Therefore, methods to enhance motivation have been thoroughly investigated. There are two forms of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
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www.abcbodybuilding.com Rewards 2 Adapted from Ryan and Deci (2000) Figure 1 graphically depicts the various forms of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. These definitions are discussed below. Intrinsic motivation can be defined as an individuals need to feel competency and pride in something (McCullagh, 2005). Therefore, athletes who are intrinsically motivated participate in sports for no apparent reward other than the satisfaction and pleasure they get from the activity itself. There are 3 types of intrinsic
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