BOTANY 131 FINAL EXAM

BOTANY 131 FINAL EXAM - BOTANY 131 FINAL EXAM Chapters 8 9...

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Unformatted text preview: BOTANY 131 FINAL EXAM Chapters: 8, 9, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 26 PART 1: INTRODUCTION TO PLANT LIFE, BIODIVERSITY I. Science and Scientific Method A. Fact : something believed to be true through observation and measurement B. Hypothesis : educated guess/ working assumption C. Theory : a conceptual framework based on many observations which is used to explain observations and predict new ones D. Science : a method for understanding the natural world E. Scientific Method : E.1. Steps E.1.a. Recognize question E.1.b. Develop hypothesis E.1.c. Perform experiment E.1.d. Analyze and interpret results E.1.e. Share knowledge (Publication) E.1.f. Recognize more questions E.2. Characteristics: E.2.a. Unbiased E.2.b. Quantitative E.2.c. Uses proper experimental design to test hypothesis E.2.d. Uses statistics E.2.e. Replication E.2.f. Peer review before publication E.2.g. Publication allows critique from others F. Ockham’s Razor : “simple is preferred to complex” G. Teleology : the study of the end or purpose of natural phenomenon- Explains nature based on design or purpose- Aristotle II. Biodiversity and Classification A. Species : typically thought of as reproductively isolated group of organisms with a common gene pool and similar physical characteristics A.1. “Reproduction isolation ”: doesn’t mean they physically cant it means they don’t B. Taxonomy : describing, naming, and classifying organisms B.1. Binomial System of Nomenclature: naming with 2 names B.1.a. Created by Linnaeus - Priort to Linnaus plants were named by a long name, “polynomial” B.1.a..i. Not standardized and hard to remember B.1.b. Genus, species (underlined or italic) B.1.c. Used for all organisms that reproduce sexually (eukaryotes) B.2. Taxon: a taxonomic group of organisms at any level (ex: genus) B.3. Taxonomist: people that study and name B.4. Systematist: people that figure out the evolutionary relationships between organisms C. Important Changes to Classification C.1. Hogg and Hackel add Protista 3 kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Protista) C.1.a. Protista includes:- Fungi, bacteria, algae C.2. Copeland adds Monera (bacteria) 4 kingdoms C.3. Whitaker adds Fungi 5 kingdoms C.4. Woese C.4.a. Split Monera into 2 kingdoms: Archea and Bacteria 6 kingdoms C.4.b. Created 3 Domains:- Bacteria - Archea- Eukarya D. 15 million species exist today. 25% will be extinct by our lifetime. III. Life Cycles: Alternation of Generations A. Cells: A.1. Types of Cells: A.1.a. Body (Somatic) Cells- Diploid : have two sets of DNA in a nucleus- DNA : the genetic material contained in chromosomes- Homologous Chromosomes : in eukaryotes, DNA is coiled in chromosomes found in pairs called “homologous chromosomes”....
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This document was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course BOT 131 at Miami University.

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BOTANY 131 FINAL EXAM - BOTANY 131 FINAL EXAM Chapters 8 9...

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