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Quiz 1 Outline - Chapter 1 Communication systematic process...

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Chapter 1 Communication: systematic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings 4 Features of Communication 1. Process: communication is an ongoing and dynamic, it cannot be frozen 2. Systems: communication takes place within systems : inter-relating parts affect each other. - Ex: the environment. People act differently in a living room than in a beach. - A single change affects an entire system as parts of a system interact over time, new elements of the system emerge. (Changes) - A system operates as a totality of interacting elements. - Information can be passed down through a system - Openness : the extent to which a system affects or is affected by outside factors and processes - More open = more factors influence the system - Mass media and communication technologies expand the openness of most societies. - Homeostasis : systems strive to reach equilibrium or “homeostasis”. - To interpret comm., we must consider the systems in which they take place. 3. Symbols: representations of other things - Basis of communication - Human comm. Involves interaction with and through symbols - Symbols are abstract, arbitrary, and ambiguous 4. Meanings: the heart of comm. - The significance we bestow on phenomena, or what they signify to us. - We use symbols to create meanings. - Two Levels of Meaning: 4...1. “Contenet Level of Meaning”: the literal message 4...2. “Relationship Level of Meaning”: expresses the relationship between communicators. Models of Communication o Linear Models: a one-way process, one person acts on another person. - Noise : anything that interferes with the intended meaning of communication. Noise distorts communication. o Interaction Models: communication processes go both ways - Feedback : developed because listeners respond to senders (One person is the sender and one person is the receiver) - The more “ fields of experience ” between talkers overlap the better they will understand each other. More fields of experience is a reason why misunderstandings occur.
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o Transactional Models: “sequential process”, one person communicates than the other person sends feedback. (These people can switch roles) Careers in Comm o Research: academic, organizational, with counselors o Education o Mass Comm: Journalism, Broadcasting, Public Relations, Advertising o Training and Consulting: consulting firms train politicians, business men, or non-profit groups to communicate o Human Resources and Management Chapter 2
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