History Final Exam – May 5 – 12

History Final Exam – May 5 – 12 -...

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History Final Exam – May 5 – 12:30 pm April 4, 2009 The Ferment Of Reform Industrialization sparked radical new ideals about how to live and how to view reality Wave of communalism Reform Movement Religiosity Affected Christianity experimental/radical/consciously Social Movements of the Mid-19th Century: I. Communalism: The Shakers : The 1st successful communal movement Their ecstatic dances in the spirit led to the title “shakers” Economic Base Ann Lee Stanley (mother Ann) o Founder of the Shakers o She had a vision that she was the 2 nd incarnation of Christ o Her message was to withdraw from evils of the world and live in communes o Held communal property and pledged to abstain from alcohol, tobacco, politics, war, sex, and marriage o Believed that God was male and female – she thought of herself as the female side of God – women and men involved in community governance Economic Base = high quality crafts, especially furniture (unlike Brook farm) 1830’s 3,000 convents Downfall/Decline o They needed convents to continue but they had no marriage and by the 1840’s fewer convents meant decline o Mass industrial manufactured towards economic decline The Fourierist Phalanxes The rise of Fourierists was one cause of decline of Shakers Charles Fourier: Brisbane lectured and launched a fourier community o His book “Social Destiny of Man” written in 1840 attracted wide spread attention Thorace Greeley offered Brisbane space in NY Tribune to elucidate the Fourier System. Brisbane now called “Associationism” and Brisbane’s columns soon spanned a number of fourier societies in the United States Decline: there were nearly 100 communes in the 1840’s as with Brook farm – most were unable to support themselves so they collapsed John Humphrey Noyes and the Oneida Community Marriage Issue o Marriage was holding people back, it does not exist in heaven,
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exclusiveness and jealousy on earth are part of marriage o Complex Marriage: everybody is married to everyone in this commune. As a result, everyone is free to have sex with everyone. Encourage men to have sex without ejaculation to free women from endless childbirths and childcare Children were placed in communal nurseries Economic growth = silver and flatware Sexual equality between men and women – however this was contradicting because women were responsible for children so then nurseries sprung up Decline: Nayes had to flee to Canada to avoid prosecution for adultery and then as a result the community collapsed II. The Mormon Experience, The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints (LDS) Joseph Smith o Published the Book of Mormon in 1830 Patriarchal families Hardworking, saving, and entrepreneurial risk taking in a communal framework Plural Marriage: Joseph Smith had 30 wives Mormons in Missouri o Mission executive order 44 o October 27, 1838 – Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues an order in
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This document was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course HST 111 at Miami University.

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History Final Exam – May 5 – 12 -...

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