HST Exam 1 Study Guide

HST Exam 1 Study Guide - History 111 Exam 1 Monday February...

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History 111 – Exam 1 – Monday February 23, 2009 Ordovician Period (490-443 milion years ago) Horn corals Pangea (225 million years ago) 1 giant continent, “all lands” Consequences of Pangea Break Up o Life forms of New World develop in isolation o Last continent to be settled by human beings, and these people develop in isolation for hundreds of generation. They didn’t develop antibodies to Old World diseases (ex-the flue) o Without Pangea break up Columbus wouldn’t have needed to sail o Land mass of US is positioned to capture solar energy Laramide Orogency Rocks build up to form the Rocky Mountains Consequences: o Creation of soils Great Plains – most agriculturally productive soils o Grasses develop in this climate – wheat can thrive here o Minerals o Insum – moving west, setting west – potential to make money Paleoindians and the Great Pleistocene Die Off (13,000-14,000 years ago) Land bridge Paleoindian Migration Pleistocene Extinctions – all extinctions occurred about 12,000 years ago – migration of people into the new world o Megafauna – large animals that went extinct Possible Reasons for Pleistocene Die Off: 1) Martin and the Blitzkrieg Thesis o People hunted these animals, megafauna, in a way comparable to the German tactic of war Comparing Paleoindians to Nazis o Blitzkrieg Hypothesis – 100 Paleoindians 12,000 years ago in Alberta 20 miles southward per year They kill 12 large animals/person/year Population doubles every 20 years In only 300 years, they numbered 100,000 people and spread 2,000 miles and killed 90 million animals o Challenges to the hypothesis: Fewer than 100 sites Why would they focus on megafauna – they couldn’t preserve food Smaller animals also vanished 2) Climate Change – another possible reason for Pleistocene Die Off
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o Substantial changes in composition and structure of terrestrial communities o Missing #2 o Missing #3 o Challenges to this hypothesis: Why hadn’t rapid change in climate in the past cause giant extinction Why were warming conditions stressful for so many pleisocene herbivores and plants People and climate change contributed to Pleistocene die off Anasazi Rock art Thriving, advanced in: o Art o Astronomy o Trade routes o Technology o Irrigation o Ate plants and animals o Chaco canyon – large city 12,000 years ago – entire civilization collapses over night o 2 Reasons for Collapse Water – Erosion They deforested their surroundings – less hunting, less wood lack of resources caused social stress defensive, warfare, cannibalism Why the Age of Exploration? The Crusades (1095 – begins with the Council of Clermont)
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HST Exam 1 Study Guide - History 111 Exam 1 Monday February...

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