Chapter 2 – Representations of Earth

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Chapter 2 – Representations of Earth Navigation: getting from where you are to where you want to go Cartography: the science and profession of mapmaking Primary purpose of a map is to communicate special information Oblate Spheroid: the shape of our Earth, a sphere, the equatorial region bulges outward and slightly flattens the Polar Regions. This is because of the centrifugal force associated with Earth’s daily rotation. Great Circle: an imaginary circle drawn in any direction on Earth’s surface and whose plane passes through the center of Earth o Great circles dived Earth into equal halves – Hemispheres Small Circle: any circle on Earth’s surface that does not divide the planet into equal halves Coordinate System Latitude – north and south of the equator o Measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds Sextant: instrument that measures the angle between our horizon and a celestial
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Unformatted text preview: body such as the North star • Longitude: we use longitude lines to find a location east or west o Prime Meridian: 0 degrees longitude o Longitude is the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian • Geographic Grid: longitude and latitude lines make up the geographic grid • East West lines – Latitude – are known as parallels o The equator is the only parallel that is a great circle • North South lines – Longitude – are known as meridians • Time Zones – the relationship between longitude (Earth’s rotation) and time • Solar Noon: the precise moment in a day when a vertical stake cast its shortest shadow • International Date Line: the line that generally follows the 180 th meridian • U.S. Public Lands Survey System: developed for parceling public lands west of Pennsylvania...
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This document was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course GEO 121 at Miami University.

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