NRC - LivingintheCity:UrbanEcosystems&UrbanBiodiversity...

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19:37 PRS: Roughly what proportion of the world’s population lives in cities today? (C) 50% 80% population in the United States lives in Urban/Suburban area.  What is Urban? What features do you think define urban habitats? Population density Types of Housing Amount of Concrete Two Key Features: Built structure Human Population Many Forms of Urbanization Megacity (>10 million people) Used to be a handful, now there are ~50 megacities Megalopolis (covers large area) LA New York City Suburban sprawl Ex-urban development
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Characteristics of Urban Ecosystems Structure (Physical Changes) Replace native habitats with human-created ones Changes in food and other resources Function (How the changes interact) Altered seasons   Urban Heat Island City absorbs the sun all day and the city is warmer at night because it slowly releases  the heat Altered species interactions EX: Predation, pollination Urbanization and Water Urbanization increases the speed of the run off and decreases the absorption of water  in the soil.  The increase in impervious cover disrupts the natural water balance The amount of water running off the site is dramatically increased.  What does that water carry with it? Pollutants, erosion   more sediment.  Traffic Noise Effects on Animals Looked at the traffic noise and how it affected animals  Traffic noise is low frequency.  Frog is trying to call and the pitch is the same as the traffic noise then it creates a  problem.  Frogs then changed their pitch higher to get over the traffic noise.   However female frogs response better to lower pitched calls.  Noise Levels Differ Across a City
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The higher income areas have lower levels of noise The lower income areas have higher levels of noise.  Distance farther away from urban center   lower levels of noise. Some avoid the cities… Variety of sensitive species, including many migratory bird species.  Some are surprisingly persistent… Red-backed salamander – urban park in Cleveland, Ohio Unexpected complexity On Campus? Bobcat, squirrels, chipmunks, skunks, possums, snapping turtles, Peregrine falcon,  Red-tailed hawk Urbanization Gradient Wild lands         Rural            Suburban      Urban Center Wilderness        Ex-urban      Residential    City Desert            Hinterlands Human Impacted  ---------------------------  Human Dominated species richness population densities
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Living Routes-Daniel Greenberg 19:37
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This document was uploaded on 10/26/2011 for the course NRC 100 at UMass (Amherst).

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NRC - LivingintheCity:UrbanEcosystems&UrbanBiodiversity...

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