Chapter 3: Carl Jung
First to recognize the problem of the subjectivity of personality theory.
Observed conflict between Freud and Adler about human neurosis and wondered
“how it was that each investigator saw only one side, and why each maintained
that he had the only valid view.”
“Adler sees how a subject who feels suppressed and inferior tries to secure
an illusory superiority…This view lays undue emphasis upon the subject”
significance of other objects entirely vanishes.
“Freud sees his patient in perpetual dependence on, and in relation to,
significant objects” objects are of the greatest significance and possess
almost exclusively the determining power.
One finds the determining agency in the subject, the other in the object.
This gave Jung the idea of introversion and extraversion. Chose to use this to
explain Freud/Adler conflict because of his
considers is his personality and unique mode of experiencing himself and the
In Memories, Dreams, and Reflections (1961),
describes how he determined that
he had two personalities, No. 1 and No. 2.
No. 1: The normal one, known by everyone; the outer world was of the
No. 2: Hidden inner self with secret fantasies about the ultimate mysteries
of the cosmos. An ageless being who received communications from God.
In this world, Jung was able to escape the harsh reality experienced by No.
Because of 1, he was able to be involved with others and professional work, but
when 2 was dominant, he wouldn’t be able to relate to the outer world.
No.1 corresponds with Freud (extraverted) and the other world, or objects.
No.2 corresponds with Adler (introverted) and the inner self, or subject.
The Subjective World in Jung’s Theory
The collective unconscious and archetypes
Archetypes: notions of the objective, impersonal, transpersonal, or
and its contents. One of the central constructs in
Jung’s metapsychology.(pg 67-68)
Collective unconscious; entirely universal, detached from anything
personal. An image of the world which has taken aeons to form.
The collective unconscious and its archetypes may represent longed-for,
idealized figures that are the source of unimaginable goodness, and may
also embody imaginal entities that are highly dangerous in their
omnipotent, daemoniacal powers.
The subjectively powerful images that are reified in the concept of the
collective unconscious pose grave threats to the individual’s sense of self.
Specifically threatens its cohesiveness (self-boundaries), stability (self-
identity), and its affective coloring (self-esteem regulation).