Final Exam Review - 23:20 Aristotle(384322b.c

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Final Exam Review-Chapter 1-3 23:20 -Psychology’s Roots- “study of the mind” Aristotle(384-322 b.c) Wilhelm Wundt - performed psychology’s first experiment by having his students sit in a  chair and watch a ball hit and hit a button as soon as they saw the ball hit   BIOPYSCHOSOCIAL - takes all three major perspectives of psychology and groups it  into one term BIO- take genetics natural selection, hormones, and brain mechanism PSYCHO-learned fears, emotional responses, cognitive processing and perceptual  interpretations.  SOCIAL- presence of others cultural, societal and family expectations, peers and others  influence -Independent variable - what the experimenter or the person controlling the experiment  can manipulate. Ex) testing drugs, the drugs that you would be giving the groups would  be the  independent variable  and the result would be the  dependant variable  or the  behavior that can be measured. -Humanistic Psychology - Rebelled against both behaviorism and Freudian  psychology, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow- some humanistic psychologists -DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGY MODERN-STUDY OF BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL  PROCESSES Psychology’s biggest question- Nature vs. Nurture Controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience to the  development of our traits and behaviors.  Psychology’s Subfields Applied research - scientific research aimed to solve practical problems
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Basic research - pure science, aimed to increase scientific knowledge Clinical Psychologists - asses and treats mental emotional and behavior disorders Counseling Psychologists - help people cope with challenges and crises and to  improve their personal and social functioning Psychiatrists - who also often provide psychotherapy, are medical doctors licensed to  prescribe drugs and otherwise  treat physical causes of psychological disorders -Cannot rely on common sense because of Hindsight bias and Judgmental  overconfidence hindsight bias- “I knew it all along phenomena”, believing we could have called out the  outcome overconfidence- we humans tend to think we know more then we actually know.  Scientific Methods Theory- a scientific theory explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes  observations and predicts the behaviors of others  Hypothesis- a good theory produces a good testable predictions Chapter 2 BIOLOGICAL BASES OF BEHAVIOR Divisions of the nervous system Central Nervous System (CNS) Encased in bone--brain & spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System Somatic--to and from sense organs and skeletal muscles Autonomic-- internal organs & glands Sympathetic--arousal Parasympathetic--calming
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Endocrine System-  Brain
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