Lecture0906final - Synaptic(axon terminal The cell body is...

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Synaptic (axon) terminal
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The cell body is the site of protein synthesis
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Dendrites receive information from other neurons
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Synapses, usually onto dendrites and cell bodies, are sites of information transfer between neurons
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Axons can be covered in myelin, or sometimes not
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Myelinated axons have nodes of Ranvier
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The beginning of the axon is where the action potential is usually initiated. Myelination begins here.
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The structure of neurons, like other cells can be examined by immunostaining and GFP-tagging methods These methods localize proteins within cells. Examined this way, the localization of proteins within neurons turns out to be highly specialized. Even common cytoskeletal proteins are distributed differently in axons, dendrites and at synapses. These specialized arrangements of cytoskeletal proteins create a scaffold that localizes ion channels and proteins that e.g bind or release neurotransmitters
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1.4 Neurons are polarized cells with distinctive arrangement of cytoskeletal elements.
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Key to previous figure (A) “typical” neuron stained with antibodies against tubulin (green) and the microtubule binding protein, tau (red). (B) Localization of actin (red) to growing tips of dendrites and axon of a growing cultured neuron Unlike neurons, actin distribution (red) is more uniform in a non-neuronal cell (C) and astrogial cell (D)
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1.4 Distinctive arrangement of cytoskeletal elements in neurons.
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