MCOM 3380 Exam 2 Study Guide

MCOM 3380 Exam 2 Study Guide - Exam 2 Study Guide: Chapters...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam 2 Study Guide: Chapters 2, 4, 6, 7 Chapter 2 • Independent vs. Dependent variables o Independent “cause” Predictor Systematically varied by the researcher o Dependent “effect” Outcome Depends on the effects on the independent variable Observed, measured, explained What the researcher wishes to explain • Operational vs. Conceptual definitions, conceptual fit o Operationalization How exactly the concept will be measured The process of translating vague, abstract constructs into something that can be measured How do we know if we’ve done a good job? • Internal validity Two types of operational definitions: • Measured – specifies how to measure a variable • Experimental – explains how an investigator has manipulated a variable. Forces researcher to express abstract concepts in concrete terms o Conceptual (constituitive) What the concept means for purposes of investigation • Levels of measurement o Nominal Variable is measured merely with different categories Categories must be: • Mutually exclusive o Each measurement is appropriate to only one category o “all of the above” • Exhaustive o Each measure accounts for every possible option o Has EVERY option o “other” Examples: • Numbers on football jerseys • License plates • Social Security numbers • Classifying respondents according to the medium they depend on most for news Assign numbers in place of names • Example: Dog (1) Cat (2) Mouse (3) Weakest o Ordinal Measured with rank – order categories Tell you placement, but not how far apart Examples • Lower class, Middle class, Upper class • Rankings of sports teams • Restaurant rankings • Beauty pageant results o Interval Measurement points with equal distance between them No true zero • Example: difficult to conceive of a person having zero intelligence or zero personality Examples: • Temperature o The same amount of heat is needed to heat warm an object from 30 to 40 degrees as to warm it from 50 to 60 degrees Continuous variable o Ratio Measurement points with equal distance between them True, meaningful zero Examples • Time and distance o A car traveling 50mph is going twice as fast as a car traveling at 25mph Continuous variable • Types of scales o Rating Scales Asks participants to provide a numeric response, or circle a response, or check a box Number of response points can vary based on a specific type of scale • A scale with more points rather than fewer points allows for greater differentiation on the item(s) being rated o Likert Scales 5 point scale; strong agree – strongly disagree Likert and Likert-type qestions • Agreement o Strongly agree to strongly disagree • Frequency scale o Never to always • Satisfaction o Completely satisfied to completely dissatisfied o Semantic differential scale Used to measure the meaning an item has for an individual...
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This document was uploaded on 10/26/2011 for the course MCOM 3380 at Texas Tech.

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MCOM 3380 Exam 2 Study Guide - Exam 2 Study Guide: Chapters...

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