Bioaerosols_2010

Bioaerosols_2010 - Bioaerosols
 A....

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Unformatted text preview: Bioaerosols
 A. 
Very
broad
in
scope
 
Scale:
room
(7,
meters)

regional
(miles,
tens
of
miles)

global
(intercon=nental)
 
Agencies
responsible:
 
 
NIOSH
–
Na=onal
Ins=tute
of
Occupa=onal
Safety
and
Health
 
 

 
 
indoor
and
workplace
aerosols
 
 
EPA
–
outdoor,
PM10
,
PM2.5
 
 
NASA,
USGS
‐

dust,
weather
related
 
 
CDC
–
cause
of
illness
 
 
Homeland
Security
–
Bioterrorism
 
What
is
a
bioaerosol?
 
 
‐
bacteria,
fungi,
spores,
pollen,
small
pieces
of
plants
and
insects
 
 
‐
microbiological
cellular
components,
endotoxins,
EPS
 
 
‐
microbiological
products,
VOC
 B.  Background
and
defini=ons
 
‐
par=cles
of
biological
or
microbiological
origin
small
enough
to
be
dispersed
or
 transported
through
the
air
from
one
loca=on
to
another
 
‐
transport
and
survival
subject
to:
 
 
‐
weather
and
air
mass
movements
 
 
‐
distance
traveled
–
dependent
on
par=cle
size,
gravity
 
 
‐
atmospheric
factors
affec=ng
microbe
survival
 Table
3.1.

Some
atmospheric
factors
affec=ng
survival
of
microorganisms
 Factor 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Effect
level 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reference 
 
 

 Ultraviolet 
 Temperature 
 Oxygen 
 
 Sulfur
dioxide 
 Formaldehyde 
 
 
 
1
x

0.75
(mW
cm‐2)
x

s 
 
‐40°C 
 
 
 
 
0‐30%
of
1
atm 
 
 
2.5
mg/m3 
 
 
 
1
ml/L 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Riley
&
Kaufman,
1972
 
Ehrlich
et
al,
1970
 
Cox
et
al,
1974
 
Lighthart,
1973
 
Won
&
Ross,
1969
 
 
 
 
 
 

 Microorganisms
have
been
posi=vely
iden=fied
in
samples
from
4,000
to
77,000
m,
 mostly
spores,
pollen.
 Table
2.3.

Survival
of
some
viruses
and
bacteria
in
aerosol
related
to
rela=ve
humidity
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20% 
 
+ 
 
+ 
 
+++ 
 
+++ 
 
‐ 
+ 
 
 
 
 
Rela=ve
Humidity
 
40% 
 
60% 
 
80%
 
++ 
++ 
++ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
+++ 
 
+++ 
 
+ 
 
++ 
 
++ 
 
++ 
 
 
 
‐
 
‐
 
‐
 
‐
 
+++
 
+++
 
 

 Viruses
 
RSV 
 
 
 
Lassa 
 
 
 
Japanese
encephali=s 
Influenza 
 
 Bacteria
 
E.
coli 
 
 
 
F.
tularensis 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Size
of
par=cle
is
an
important
factor
in
risk
associated
with
aerosols,
the
smaller
the
 par=cle,
the
greater
the
risk.
 PM10 
 PM2.5 
 
 
air
par=culate
mamer
up
to
10µ
in
diameter
considered
‘coarse’
par=cles
 
EPA
24
hr
PM10
standard
150
ug/m3
 
air
par=culate
mamer
up
to
2.5µ
in
diameter
considered
‘fine’
par=cles
 
EPA
24
hr
PM2.5
standard
35
µg/m3
(this
was
revised
from
65
µg/m3
in
2006,

 
and
generated
strong
opposi=on
from
industries
and
u=li=es).
 1
 2
 3
 1.  Nasopharynx
or
head
 
 
spores
and
par=cles

>
20
µ 2.  Larynx,
trachea,
bronchi
 
 
par=cles

<
20
µ
 3.  Bronchioles
and
alveoli
 
 
par=cles

<
1‐4
µ
 civil.engr.siu.edu
 www.whamheproblemis.com
 C.  Occupa=onal
exposure
 
•

machine
shops,
cusng
fluids
for
metal
work,
used
for
cooling,
lubrica=ng,
 flushing
work
zone.
 
 
‐
use
petroleum
or
vegetable
oils,
synthe=c
fluids
 
 
‐
with
addi=ves,
emulsifiers,
chelators,
buffers,
biocides
 
 
‐
microbial
growth
occurs
and
gets
dispersed
into
aerosols
that
affect
workers
 
 
‐

endotoxins
are
Gram
nega=ve
bacteria,
outer
membrane
lipopolysaccharides
 

 
that
can
cause
allergic
reac=on.
 
•

agriculture,
farmer’s
lung
disease
 
 
‐
dust
from
feedlots
and
large
animal
facili=es
 
 
‐
dust
from
crops
and
soil
in
field
work

 
•
wastewater
treatment
 
 
‐
aerosols
from
secondary
treatment
aera=on
units
 
 
‐
handling
biosolids
a7er
treatment
in
land
applica=on
 ANTHRAX
 • 
Bacillus
anthracis
–
old
story,
new
threat
 
Gram
+
sporeformer
 • 
Some
consider
that
it
is
referenced
in
the
Book
of
Exodus
in
the
Bible
 
Of
the
10
plagues
of
Egypt
 
 
plague
of
murrain
–
epidemic
killing
camle,
sheep,
horses
 
 
plague
of
boils
and
blains
(skin
swelling,
sore,
blister)
 
 
plague
of
darkness
–
sand,
dust
storm?
 
 
plague
of
death
 • 
Virgil
describes
a
terrible
plague
destroying
sheep,
camle
horses,
deer,
and
spread
to
 humans
that
clinically
appeared
to
be
anthrax
 
“If
anyone
wore
a
garment
made
from
tainted
wool,
his
limbs
were
soon
amached
 by
inflamed
papules…”
 • 
More
recent
animals
plagues,
18th
century
50%
sheep
killed
in
Europe
 
‐1860‐1870
more
than
130,000
horses,
camle
and
sheep
and
more
than
500

 
people
died
in
anthrax
in
Russia
 
‐
1870‐1880,
anthrax
studied
by
both

 
 
Robert
Koch,
Koch’s
postulates,
pure
culture
cause
disease
 
 
Louis
Pasteur,
made
amenuated
anthrax
vaccine
 • 
In
U.S.
local
and
small
animal
epidemics
reported
up
un=l
1962
 • 
What
are
the
symptoms
of
anthrax?
 hmp://www.cdc.gov/
 



Symptoms
of
disease
vary
depending
on
how
the
disease
was
contracted,
but
symptoms
usually
 occur
within
7
days.
 



Cutaneous:
Most
(about
95%)
anthrax
infec=ons
occur
when
the
bacterial
spore
enters
a
cut
or
 abrasion
on
the
skin,
such
as
when
handling
contaminated
wool,
hides,
leather
or
hair
products
 (especially
goat
hair)
of
infected
animals.
Skin
infec=on
begins
as
a
raised
itchy
bump
that
resembles
 an
insect
bite
but
within
1‐2
days
develops
into
a
vesicle
and
then
a
painless
ulcer,
usually
1‐3
cm
in
 diameter,
with
a
characteris=c
black
necro=c
(dying)
area
in
the
center.
Edema
or
swelling
of
the
 surrounding
=ssues
may
develop
and
lymph
glands
in
the
adjacent
area
may
swell.
About
20%
of
 untreated
cases
of
cutaneous
anthrax
will
result
in
death.
Deaths
are
rare
with
appropriate
 an=microbial
therapy.
 



Inhala=on:
Ini=al
symptoms
may
resemble
a
common
cold.
A7er
several
days,
the
symptoms
may
 progress
to
severe
breathing
problems
and
shock.
Inhala=on
anthrax
is
usually
fatal,
and
even
with
 aggressive
an=bio=c
and
suppor=ve
therapy
45%
of
inhala=on
anthrax
cases
were
fatal
in
the
 bioterrorist
amack
in
the
fall
of
2001.
 



Intes=nal:
The
intes=nal
disease
form
of
anthrax
may
follow
the
consump=on
of
contaminated
 meat
and
is
characterized
by
an
acute
inflamma=on
of
the
intes=nal
tract.
Ini=al
signs
include
 nausea,
loss
of
appe=te,
vomi=ng,
fever
are
followed
by
abdominal
pain,
vomi=ng
of
blood,
and
 severe
diarrhea.
Symptoms
may
also
include
lesions
and
soreness
in
the
throat,
difficulty
swallowing,
 marked
swelling
of
the
neck
and
regional
lymph
glands.
Intes=nal
anthrax
results
in
death
in
25%
to
 60%
of
cases.
 •
How
is
anthrax
transmimed?
 



Anthrax
infec=on
can
occur
in
three
forms:
cutaneous
(skin),
inhala=on,
and
 gastrointes=nal.
B.
anthracis
spores
can
live
in
the
soil
for
many
years,
and
humans
can
 become
infected
with
anthrax
by
handling
products
from
infected
animals
or
by
inhaling
 anthrax
spores
from
contaminated
animal
products.
Anthrax
can
also
be
spread
by
ea=ng
 undercooked
meat
from
infected
animals.
It
is
rare
to
find
infected
animals
in
the
United
 States.
 • 
Historical
occupa=onal
exposure
 Table
4.

Occupa=ons
at
risk
for
anthrax
 Wool
sorters,
combers,
carders,
spinners Weavers
cloth,
carpet 
 
 
 
 Upholsterers 
 
 
 
 
 
 Mamress
makers 
 
 
 
 
 Brush
makers 
 
 
 
 
 
 Warehouse
workers 
 
 
 
 Longshoremen 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Slaughterhouse
workers

 
Butchers
 
Bone
meal
processers
 
Ranchers,
herders
 
Veterinarians
 
Dairy
workers
 
Skinners,
tanners
 

Furriers
 

Shoemakers
 
 
 
 
 
 

 • 
Historical
occupa=onal
exposure
 
‐
In
the
1800s,
mohair
from
Asia
and
alpaca
from
Peru
imported
to
England,
workers

 
in
industry
began
dying
from
inhala=on
anthrax;
undesirable
high
risk
occupa=on.


 
A7er
disinfec=on
ins=tuted,
in
the
=me
since
then
only
18
cases
among
this

 
occupa=on.
 • 
Es=mates
that
there
are
s=ll
around
100,000
cases
annually
worldwide
 • 
Summary
by
CDC
of
known
cases
in
U.S.
1950‐2001
 
Total
no.
cases
in
humans
reported 
458
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
80% 
cutaneous
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20% 
inhala=on
 
Causes
of
infec=on: 
imported
yarn
with
goat
hair,
goat
hair
mill
dust,
goat
hair
in

 
 
tex=le
mill,
goat
skin
tannery,
infected
animal
disposal,
goatskin
drums,
infected

 
 
camle,
gela=n
manufacturing
fr
infected
cows.
 
 
‐Recent
case
fr
2
yrs
ago
in
NYC,
an
African
dancer
and
drummer
contracted

 
 
inhala=on
anthrax
from
infected
cowhide
used
to
make
drum.

This
was
the
first

 
 
case
of
inhala=on
anthrax
in
the
U.S.
since
1976.
Recovered
a7er
hospitaliza=on

 
 
and

intensive
an=bio=c
treatment.

 
 
 
 
 
 

 2001
Anthrax
outbreak
through
deliberate
infec=on
 • 
Mul=ple
sites
in
the
U.S.
–
 
Publisher
in
Florida

 
 
 
 
 
 

TV
network
in
NYC

 
 
 
 
 
 

Senate
office
in
Washington
DC

 
 
 
 
 
 

post
office
in
Washington
DC

 
 
 
 
 
 

post
office
in
NJ
 
Found
to
be
all
the
same
genotype
and
with
the
same
an=bio=c
resistance
pamern.
 • 
As
a
bioweapon,
very
effec=ve.


 • 
A
lot
of
work
was
declassified
a7er
the
U.S.
stopped
bioweapons
research
in
the
1960s.
 
‐
spores
are
dormant
and
not
sensi=ve
to
heat,
light,
dessica=on
 
‐
spores
are
easily
dispersed
as
aerosol
 
‐
once
inhaled
they
germinate
into
ac=ve
cells
 
‐
powder
found
was
considered
to
be
‘weaponized’,
e.g.
made
into
small
highly

 
 
dispersible
aerosols
that
can
lodge
deep
in
the
lungs.
 
‐
powder
was
uniformly
1.5
to
3
µ
in
size.
 
‐
appeared
to
be
also
electrosta=cally
charged
to
enhance
dispersal
and
coated
with

 
 
polymerized
glass
and
silica
to
prevent
clumping.
 Senate
office
case
study
 Hsu,
et
al
2002.

Opening
a
Bacillus
anthracis
containing
envelop,
Capitol
Hill,
 Washington,
DC:
The
public
health
response.

Emerging
Infec=ous
Diseases
8:1039‐1042.
 • October
15,
2001,
9:45
am,
staff
member
in
office
of
Senator
Tom
Daschle
opened
 envelop
with
powdery
burst
of
dust.


 
Lemer
contained
about
2
g
powder
with
109
to
1012
spores/g
 ‐ nasal
swabs
taken
from
all
 staff
members
in
Sen.
 Daschle’s
and
Feingold’s
 offices
and
all
first
responders
 (police
and
emergency
 response
personnel).
 ‐ 
everyone
washed
hands
with
 soap
and
water,
and
only
the
 person
who
opened
envelop
 removed
and
changed
clothes.
 ‐ 
3
day
prophylaxis
regimen
of
 ciprofloxacin
given
to
these
 people.
 • 
Contaminated
envelop
was
traced
back
through
the
congressional
mail
distribu=on
 system
it
went
through
prior
to
arrival.
 • 
Nasal
swabs
taken
from
other
personnel
in
office
building
who
were
associated
with
mail
 distribu=on.
 • 
Those
with
ini=al
posi=ve
swabs
had
repeat
nasal
swabs
at
7
days
postexposure.
 • 
Also
serum
obtained
and
tested
for
presence
of
immunoglobulin
(Ig)G
an=bodies
to
B.
 anthracis
protec=ve
an=gen
(an=‐PA)
at
7,
21
&
42
days
postexposure.
 Those
with
posi=ve
nasal
 swabs
received
a
60
day
 course
of
an=bio=cs.
 • 
All
repeat
swabs
at
7
days
postexposure
were
nega=ve,
all
serological
tests
were
 nega=ve.
 • 
No
clinical
anthrax
developed
in
those
exposed
in
the
Senate
building.
 • 
This
was
not
true
of
the
postal
workers
in
the
DC
facility
that
processed
the
envelop,
4
 cases
of
inhala=on
anthrax
occurred.
 • 
This
was
a
unique
situa=on
because
it
was
the
first
=me
with
a
known
source
of
 exposure
that
enabled
a
rapid
response.
 Global
and
regional
transport
of
dust
 • Both
anthropogenic
and
natural
causes
account
for
massive
amounts
of
dust
being
 transported
across
long
distances.
 • Benefits
include
transport
of
nutrients
to
areas
that
are
depleted,
e.g.
rain/cloud
 forests
 • Owens
Lake
CA,
now
a
dry
bed
that
once
was
280
km2
in
area
and
15m
deep.
 
‐
It
is
now
the
largest
single
source
of
PM10
dust
in
the
U.S.
genera=ng
1‐8M
tons/yr
 
‐
In
1913
water
was
diverted
from
the
Owens
River
to
the
city
of
Los
Angenes
by
by

 
1926
the
lake
was
dry.
 
‐
The
fine
silt
sediment
is
alkaline
with
arsenic
conc.
50
ppm
 • 
Intercon=nental
transport
of
large
volumes
of
dust
can
transport
minerals,
nutrients
 and
microorganisms
in
a
way
that
has
not
happened
before.
 • 
Conserva=ve
es=mate
of
104
bacteria/g
airborne
soil
or
sediment,

 
‐
given
109
tons
of
sediment
in
the
atmosphere
=
1018
(quin=llion)
organisms
being

 
transported.
 • 
Africandust
=
13M
tons
of
sediment
from
Africa
fall
on
North
and
South
America/yr
 
‐
one
storm
can
deliver
200
Tons
 
‐
Sahara
and
Sahel
regions
of
N.
Africa,
under
drought
since
1960s,
dust
follows

 
prevailing
winds
 
 
June‐Oct
travels
to
Caribbean
and
N.
America
 
 
Nov‐May
goes
to
S.
American
 
‐
crop
pathogens
from
Africa
‐

cane
rust,
coffee
rust,
banana
leaf
spot
 
‐
soil
pathogen
Aspergillus
syndowii
implicated
in
coral
reef
disease
in
Caribbean
 • 
Associated
with
dust
events
 ‐
algal
red
=de
blooms
 
‐
animal
foot
and
mouth
disease
outbreaks
 
‐
human
meningi=s,
asthma
incr
17X
corresponding
to
dust
storms.
 • 
Gobi
Desert
event,
April
2001
 ‐ 
intensive
grazing
has
eroded
soils
 ‐ 
satellite
mapping
followed
event
across
Korea,
Japan,
Pacific
Ocean
in
5
days
to
 N.
America,
Atlan=c
Ocean,
Europe
 North
African
dust
 Gobi
desert
dust
 USGS
 Satellite
images
of
African
dust
crossing
across
the
Atlan=c

 USGS
 Kellogg
&
Griffin,
USGS
 ...
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