Chem_of_Cell_01-10_post

Chem_of_Cell_01-10_post - Chemistry is good, nature is...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry is good, nature is better Efraim Racker, 1976 Microbes are the best chemists in the world Werner Stumm, 1969 CHEMISTRY OF THE CELL C H O P K N S Ca Fe Mg (trace) UNIVERSAL ELEMENTS NEEDED FOR GROWTH C H O P K N S C a F e M g + trace element form in the environment cellular needs C inorganic (CO 2 ) organic structural component energy source H water organic compounds structural energy transfer energy source O water organic compounds structural energy P phosphate (PO 4-3 ) structural energy transfer K K + enzyme co-factor N inorganic (N 2 , NH 3 , NO 3- ) organic (amino acids) structural energy source respiratory electron acceptor S inorganic (H 2 S, SO 4-2 ) organic (amino acids) structural energy source respiratory electron acceptor Ca Ca +2 cell wall and membrane stabilizer Fe Fe +2 , Fe +3 enzyme co-factor respiratory electron acceptor Mg Mg +2 enzyme co-factor membrane and macromolecule stabilizer trace (Na, Zn, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) ionic form enzyme co-factors CHEMISTRY OF THE CELL C H O P K N S Ca Fe Mg (trace) All organisms require the same suite of elements for synthesis and growth. The form in which the elements can be used is relatively limited for mammals compared to bacteria. This broad nutritional range, in fact, is one of the hallmarks of the procaryotes [bacteria]. Above, is a convenient pneumonic device which summarizes the universally needed elements for growth. Trace elements - Zn, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu are needed in such small quantities that they are seldom considered LIMITING. Ca, Fe, Mg, K, PO 4- constituents needed by all organisms for proteins, cofactors, and other macromolecular cell components. These cannot be used to select one type of organism over another. CHEMISTRY OF THE CELL (contd) C H O P K N S Ca Fe Mg (trace) S - essential for proteins and key coenzymes. SO 4 = is the usual form in which it is found in the environment. Animals cannot reduce it to -SH form, and hence animals must take it up through ingestion. Not all bacteria can reduce inorganic sulfate, in which case it must be externally provided. Some bacteria have very specific needs as to the oxidation state of sulfur compounds it can use in energy generation. Specifically, in oxidation-reduction reactions. For example Acidothiobacillus oxidizes S 2 O 3 = to SO 4 = while Desulfovibrio reduces SO 4 = to HS- in anaerobic respiration. CHEMISTRY OF THE CELL (contd) C H O P K N S Ca Fe Mg (trace) C, N - constituents of essential cellular macromolecules. The form of C provided is a pivotal selective factor. It can be organic or inorganic. Chemoautotrophic [chemolithotrophic] bacteria use inorganic CO 2 for carbon, while almost any organic form of carbon can be used by bacteria....
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This note was uploaded on 10/25/2011 for the course ENVSCI 411 taught by Professor Young during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Chem_of_Cell_01-10_post - Chemistry is good, nature is...

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