Jan27_Kukor_Phylogeny

Jan27_Kukor_Phylogeny - Environmental & Pollution...

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Spring 2010 Phylogeny and Microbial Diversity [mostly from Brock chapter 11 in 11 th th edition] (1.) Evolutionary chronometers (A.) evolutionary distances evaluated from substitutions in homologous molecules -- a direct reflection of mutational changes (B.) Use of rRNA -- universally distributed, functionally homologous, positions can be aligned, rate of substitution directly related to evolutionary distance. (Other useful chronometers are ATPase and RecA)
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(C.) Review structure of ribosome Prokaryote: 70S overall 30S small subunit 21 proteins 1 RNA (16S) 50S subunit 34 proteins 2 RNAs -- 23S and 5S Eukaryote: 80S overall 40S small subunit 30 proteins 1 RNA (18S) 60S large subunit 50 proteins 3 RNAs -- 28S, 5.8S, 5S
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(iii.) highly conserved regions allow alignment; variable regions allow calculation of evolutionary distance (iv.) 16S rRNA gene sequences diverge by just 1% every 50 million years (v.) Ribosomal Data Base Project based at Michigan State Univ. ( http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/ ) ~1.28 x 10 6 16S rRNA sequences deposited (Jan. 2010)
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(D.) Isolation and sequence RNA (i.) Direct method -- isolate RNA -- anneal to DNA oligonucleotide primer (explain primer design) -- reverse transcriptase (explain mechanism)
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This note was uploaded on 10/25/2011 for the course ENVSCI 411 taught by Professor Young during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Jan27_Kukor_Phylogeny - Environmental & Pollution...

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