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LS2-2 Lec 8 Immune (4 Slides)

LS2-2 Lec 8 Immune (4 Slides) - The Immune System Life...

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1 Life Sciences 2 Chapter 42 Immunology: Animal Defense Systems Dr. Joseph Esdin The Immune System Protects against infection and microbes Isolate or remove nonmicrobial foreign substances Destroy cancer cells The Immune System Classified in two categories: Nonspecific immune defenses – Protect against foreign substances without having to recognize their identity Specific immune defenses – Depends upon specific recognitions What Are Microbes? • Bacteria – Unicellular organisms that have a cell wall in addition to the plasma membrane
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2 What Are Microbes? • Bacteria – Lack intracellular membrane-bound organelles – Can release harmful toxins What Are Microbes? • Viruses – Made of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat – Do not have protein machinery Caspid Nucleic acid Barriers to Infection Physical barriers Chemical barriers Physical Barriers Skin Mucous membrane of the digestive system Mucous membrane of the respiratory system Mucous membrane of the urinary system Membrane of the eye
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3 Invasion Through Body Surfaces First line of defense includes skin glands, salivary glands, tonsils, & lacrimal glands Saliva contains _______ Mucus contain antimicrobial enzymes, sticky to prevent bacteria from entering blood If in the respiratory tract, can be swept up to pharynx and them swallowed and killed by acid Cough reflex, sneeze reflex Chemical Barriers Sebaceous glands Tears Wax Mucus Saliva Sweat Acid Cells of the Immune System • Leukocytes Plasma cells • Macrophages Mast cells Leukocytes • Neutrophils • Basophils • Eosinophils • Monocytes • Lymphocytes – B cells – Cytotoxic T cells – Helper T cells – NK Cells
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4 Leukocytes • Neutrophils – Phagocytosis – Release vasodialtors and chemotaxins
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