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Unformatted text preview: Effects of marijuana on neurophysiological signals of working and episodic memory Aaron B. Ilan , Michael E. Smith , and Alan Gevins San Francisco Brain Research Institute & SAM Technology, 425 Bush Street, San Francisco, CA 94108, USA, Abstract Rationale— The primary psychoactive constituent of marijuana, Δ 9-THC, activates cannabinoid receptors, which are especially abundant in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Acute marijuana smoking can disrupt working memory (WM) and episodic memory (EM) functions that are known to rely on these regions. However, the effects of marijuana on the brain activity accompanying such cognitive processes remain largely unexplored. Objectives— To examine such effects on performance and neurophysiological signals of these functions, EEG recordings were obtained from ten subjects (5M, 5F) performing cognitive tasks before and after smoking marijuana (3.45% Δ 9-THC) or a placebo. WM was assessed with a spatial N-back task, and EM was evaluated with a test requiring recognition of words after a 5–10 min delay between study and test. Results— Marijuana increased heart rate and decreased global theta band EEG power, consistent with increased autonomic arousal. Responses in the WM task were slower and less accurate after smoking marijuana, accompanied by reduced alpha band EEG reactivity in response to increased task difficulty. In the EM task, marijuana was associated with an increased tendency to erroneously identify distracter words as having been previously studied. In both tasks, marijuana attenuated stimulus-locked event-related potentials (ERPs). Conclusions— The results suggest that marijuana disrupted both sustained and transient attention processes resulting in impaired memory task performance. In subjects most affected by marijuana a pronounced ERP difference between previously studied words and new distracter words was also reduced, suggesting disruption of neural mechanisms underlying memory for recent study episodes. Keywords Marijuana; Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; Working memory; Episodic memory; Event-related potentials Introduction The primary psychoactive constituent of marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Δ 9-THC), binds to G-protein-coupled CB1 receptors that are found throughout the brain and are densely concentrated in the frontal lobes and medial temporal lobes (MTL) of the cerebral cortex (Gaoni and Mechoulam 1964; Devane et al. 1988; Herkenham et al. 1990). In humans, these areas are critical to sustained attention, working memory (WM) and episodic memory (EM) functions. Working memory refers to the ability to control attention in an effort to retain and manage active internal representations in the face of distracting influences (Baddeley and Hitch 1974; Goldman-Rakic 1987). This ability depends on the sustained activation of neurons in e-mail: [email protected] Tel.: +1-415-8371600, Fax: +1-415-2749573....
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This note was uploaded on 10/26/2011 for the course LS 2 taught by Professor Pires during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.
- Spring '08