Anthro33Lecture7Slides

Anthro33Lecture7Slides - Midterm Classroom Assignments...

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Unformatted text preview: Midterm Classroom Assignments Monday, October 24th, 11:00 - 12:15 Dodd 175 Amber Reed!s Sections: 1A, 1B, 1C Fowler A103B (here) Everybody else Performance Noam Chomsky Chomsky!s theory of language distinguishes between competence and performance. According to Chomsky, competence is the knowledge of a language system (strictly grammatical) that an ideal speaker has. According to Chomsky, performance refers to the actual use of a linguistic system, the implementation of language knowledge in acts of speaking. According to Chomsky, performance refers to the actual use of a linguistic system, the implementation of language knowledge in acts of speaking. But… Dell Hymes We should not distinguish between competence and performance. Dell Hymes We should not distinguish between competence and performance. Speakers are competent not only when they have the knowledge of grammatical rules but also when they have the knowledge of how to use language varieties appropriately (how to perform). Dell Hymes To be a member of a particular speech community, one must know when to speak and when not to speak, how to be polite, how to request or offer collaboration, how to sound calm, surprised, interested, concerned, and so forth. How to use the repertoire at their disposal! Dell Hymes Not all members of the speech community have access to the same knowledge or to the same repertoire. A focus on performance is a focus on competence. A Focus on Performance includes . . . A Focus on Performance includes . . . •! Creativity - ability to adapt speech to the situation, ability to extend and manipulate meanings A Focus on Performance includes . . . •! Creativity - ability to adapt speech to the situation, ability to extend and manipulate meanings •! Recognizes individuals! unique contribution to a situation and to the evolution of a linguistic tradition A Focus on Performance includes . . . •! Creativity - ability to adapt speech to the situation, ability to extend and manipulate meanings •! Recognizes individuals! unique contribution to a situation and to the evolution of a linguistic tradition •! Looks at situations where it matters not only what people say, but how they say it. A Focus on Performance includes . . . •! Creativity - ability to adapt speech to the situation, ability to extend and manipulate meanings •! Recognizes individuals! unique contribution to a situation and to the evolution of a linguistic tradition •! Looks at situations where it matters not only what people say, but how they say it. •! Recognizes the role of the audience A Focus on Performance includes . . . •! Creativity - ability to adapt speech to the situation, ability to extend and manipulate meanings •! Recognizes individuals! unique contribution to a situation and to the evolution of a linguistic tradition •! Looks at situations where it matters not only what people say, but how they say it •! Recognizes the role of the audience •! Ability to use a repertoire of different tools (registers, genres, routines, activities, expressions, accents, prosodic features, etc.) Alim, H. Samy. 2004. Hip Hop Nation Language. Reader, Chapter 11. Marcyliena Morgan!s Hip Hop Archives, Harvard U. www.hiphoparchive.org A hip hop artist must come from or know the street. He or she must !keep an ear to" the street. ![T]he street is not just a physical space - it is a site of creativity, culture, cognition, and consciousness." Relationship of HHNL to AAE (AAL): •! familial •! it is the submerged area of AAE (AAL) !African Americans are on the cutting edge of the socio-linguistic situation in the USA. HHNL, thus, is the cutting edge of the cutting edge" (Alim, p. 278) !Slick lexicon is hip-hop"s Magna Carta, establishing the rights of its disciples to speak loudly but privately, to tell America about herself in a language that leaves her puzzled# (Rickford and Rickford 2000:86). Differentiation of the Hip Hop lexicon, among groups and over time Language in the Hip Hop Nation goes beyond - way beyond - grammar or lexicon. Communicative practices, attitudes toward language: language as action, clothes, facial expressions, body movements, etc. Hip Hop Practices Call and Response - audience and leader are a unified whole, group experientiality, there should be no communicative schism Signifying (bustin, crackin, dissin) - reminding, scolding, shaming through indirection, and the ability of words to have other interpretations, and to relate in complex ways to context Black, Steven P. 2008. !Creativity and Learning Jazz: The Practice of "Listening.#$ Mind, Culture, and Activity, 15:1–17. On the one hand… Jazz musicians see classification as a barrier to free, creative expression in music. Improvisation is important! Yet constraints are necessary for creativity, for improvisation. !Still, there is a history of shared conventions of aesthetics, performance, and cultural activities that encompasses the label "jazz# as it is used by most people.$ ![T]he paradox of improvisation is that it requires a large amount of practice, both individually and in a group performance setting." The semicircle rehearsal arrangement is an example of an F-formation (facing-formation), allowing maximum visual access between co-participants for communication through gesture and facial expression. Within group interplay… The word !listening" refers to more than just aural attentiveness; it implies action. !Could" is an upgrade from !should." structure and agency and jazz music stable patterns of behavior agent-centered improvisation ![I]nteractive music making (utilizing group interplay) in fact constrains jazz students, eliminating the possibility of creative musical actions that do not build upon the actions of other performers." For the jazz community, creative integrity is a sort of independence within interdependence Intersections between Black and Alim: •! Interaction goes beyond the linguistic •! Facility and constraint of prior knowledge are required in order to innovate or improvise meaningfully - to have impact •! These practices are new in one sense and ancient in another •! Independence within interdependence ...
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