EXAM_2_review_PICS_and_QUESTIONS_on_CH_5_to_CH_8

EXAM_2_review_PICS_and_QUESTIONS_on_CH_5_to_CH_8 - THESE...

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THESE ARE SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT PICTURES TAKEN FROM THE NOTES ON CH 5 Use the web site below for review questions: http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_audesirk_bloe_7/1,8753,1139971,.html
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Chapter 5 pics
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0.5 1.0 1.5 0.79 0.06 3.14 7.07 0.52 1.77 Diameter (cm): Surface area (cm2): Volume (cm3): Surface- to-volume ratio: 13.17:1 6.04:1 3.99:1
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Limitations of Light Microscopy Wavelengths of light are 400-750 nm If a structure is less than one-half of a wavelength long, it will not be visible Light microscopes can resolve objects down to about 200 nm in size R O Y G B I V
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Components of Nucleus nuclear envelope nucleoplasm nucleolus chromatin
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chromatin chromosome
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Endoplasmic Reticulum In animal cells, continuous with nuclear membrane Extends throughout cytoplasm Two regions - rough and smooth
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Cytoskeletal Elements microtubule microfilament intermediate filament
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Flagella and Cilia (“9 + 2” arrangement) Structures for cell motility 9 + 2 internal structure (9 fused pairs form cylinder, and 2 unfused in middle) microtubule
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return stroke cilia lining trachea Cilium plasma membrane power stroke propulsion of fluid flagellum of human sperm continuous propulsion direction of locomotion Flagellum propulsion of fluid
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Prokaryotic Structure DNA pilus flagellum cytoplasm with ribosomes capsule cell wall plasma membrane
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chromosome (nucleoid region) pili ribosomes prokaryotic flagellum capsule or slime layer cell wall plasma membrane cytoplasm plasmid (DNA) Prokaryotic Structure
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Chapter 6 pics
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O2 - + H+ H2O2 H2O + O2 Green molecules = free radicals = superoxide dismutase action Pink molecules = toxic to cells = catalase action
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100 units chemical energy (concentrated) 25 units kinetic energy (motion) + LOW ENTROPY HIGH ENTROPY 75 units heat energy
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Endergonic Reaction + 602 and 6H2O Energy in energy-poor starting substances 6 12 glucose - a product with more energy NON-Spontaneous, Absorbs energy
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Exergonic Reaction Energy out glucose - energy-rich starting substance + 602 products with less energy 6 6 Spontaneous, Releases energy
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Structure of ATP three phosphate groups sugar (ribose) nucleotide base (adenine)
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3 Types of Metabolic Pathways BRANCHING PATHWAY LINEAR PATHWAY CYCLIC PATHWAY A B C D E F K J I G N M L H
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low high energy content of molecules progress of reaction reactants products activation energy without catalyst activation energy with catalyst
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Allosteric Activation allosteric activator vacant allosteric binding site active site altered, can bind substrate active site cannot bind substrate enzyme active site
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Allosteric Inhibition allosteric inhibitor allosteric binding site vacant; active site can bind substrate activ