Hrincevich_CH_2_outline

Hrincevich_CH_2_outline - Chemical Foundations for Cells...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemical Foundations for Cells Chapter 2 You are chemical, and so is every living and nonliving thing in the universe. Elements Most Common Elements in Living Organisms What Are Atoms? Smallest particles that retain properties of an element Made up of subatomic particles Protons Neutrons electrons Hydrogen Helium electron proton neutron Examples of Atoms Atomic Number Number of protons All atoms of an element have the same atomic number Atomic number of hydrogen = 1 Atomic number of carbon = 6 Mass Number Number of protons + Number of neutrons Isotopes vary in mass number Isotopes Atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons (different mass numbers) Carbon 12 has 6 protons, 6 neutrons Carbon 14 has 6 protons, 8 neutrons Good Exam Question: Fill in the blanks with values Atom Atomic # # of protons # of electrons # outer-shell electrons Hydrogen 1 1 1 1 Nitrogen 7 7 7 Carbon 6 6 6 4 Radioisotopes Have an unstable nucleus that emits energy and particles Radioactive decay transforms radioisotope into a different element Decay occurs at a fixed rate Uses of Radioisotopes Tracers Thyroid scan Pet scan Radiation therapy Drive artificial pacemakers normal thyroid scan enlarged thyroid What Determines whether Atoms Will Interact? the number ad arrangement of their electrons Electrons Carry a negative charge Repel one another Are attracted to protons Move in orbitals volumes of space that surround the nucleus Z X When all p orbitals are full y Electron Orbitals Orbitals can hold up to two electrons Atoms differ in the number of occupied orbitals Orbitals closest to nucleus are lower energy and are filled first Shell Model...
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Hrincevich_CH_2_outline - Chemical Foundations for Cells...

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