Hrincevich_CH_3_student_outline_Fall_08

Hrincevich_CH_3_student_outline_Fall_08 - Biological...

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Unformatted text preview: Biological Molecules Chapter 3 Importance of Carbon Carbon permeates the world of life from the energy-requiring activities to physical and chemical conditions that span the globe and ecosystems Everywhere! Carbon’s Bonding Behavior • Outer shell of carbon has 4 electrons • Each carbon atom can form covalent bonds with up to 4 atoms Methane: Simplest Organic Compound H H H H C Most Biological Molecules are Carbon Based Versatility: forms 4 covalent bonds Humans and Global Warming • Fossil fuels are rich in carbon • Use of fossil fuels releases CO2 into atmosphere • Increased CO2 may contribute to global warming Organic Compounds • Hydrogen and other elements (listed below) covalently bonded to carbon - Carbohydrates- Lipids- Proteins- Nucleic Acids Bonding Arrangements • Carbon atoms can form chains or rings • Other atoms project from the carbon backbone Hemoglobin Molecular Models • Atoms or clusters of atoms that are covalently bonded to carbon backbone • Give organic compounds their different properties • Organic vs. Inorganic in Chemistry – Organic refers to molecules containing carbon skeleton – Inorganic refers to CO2 and all molecules w/o carbon Functional Groups Examples of Functional Groups • Methyl group -CH3 • Hydroxyl group -OH • Amino group –NH3 • Carboxyl group - COOH • Phosphate group – PO3 • Sulfhydryl group- SH How Are Organic Molecules Synthesized? Organic molecules in ALL living orgs share two similarities 1. Use same functional groups 2. Formed by the modular approach-stick subunits together like cars in train Types of Reactions • Functional group transfer • Electron transfer • Rearrangement • Condensation • Cleavage Condensation Reactions...
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Hrincevich_CH_3_student_outline_Fall_08 - Biological...

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