Hrincevich_CH_12_student_outline

Hrincevich_CH_12_student_outline - Patterns of Inheritance...

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Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 12
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How are Traits Controlled? Many traits in humans aren’t controlled by one gene, but by many genes Eye color, hair, weight Several traits in humans that are controlled by one gene makes it easy to determine your phenotype and even genotype Presence/Absence doesn’t present anything meaningful
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X Examples of single gene control we looked at before
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0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 widows peak ear lobes tongue roller digit hair hand crossing DOM rec yes no free attached left on top right on top Do any of these not follow what you would have expected?
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Single Gene Variation Dominant allele vs. recessive allele Earlobes EE or Ee was free/unattached phenotype (homozygous dominant or heterozygous) ee was attached phenotype ( homozygous recessive) Easy way to examine particular traits Many diseases (>10,000) are due to single genes
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Early Ideas about Heredity People knew that sperm and eggs transmitted information about traits Blending theory Problem: Would expect variation to disappear Variation in traits persist
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Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Monk in a monastery in late 1800’s Strong background in plant breeding and mathematics Experimentation w/ pea plant inheritance took place in the monastery garden Found indirect but observable evidence of how parents transmitted genes to offspring
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The Secrets of Mendel’s Success Important aspects of pea plants Pea flowers have male structures that produce pollen (male gametes) by meiosis Pea flowers have female structures that produce eggs (female gametes) by meiosis Pea flower petals enclose both male and female flower and prevent entry of pollen from another pea plant
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intact pea flower flower dissected to show reproductive structures
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Cross Fertilization of Parents cross-fertilize pollen pollen
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Self-Fertilization of F 1 plants self-fertilize
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SUMMARY: Tracking Generations Parental generation Mates to produce First generation offspring Mate to produce Second generation offspring P1 F1 F2
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Genes Units of info about specific traits Passed from parents to offspring Each has a specific location (locus) on a chromosome
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Alleles Alternative molecular forms of a gene Arise by mutation Dominant allele masks a recessive allele that is paired w/ it
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Genetic Symbolism Often use letter initials for alleles - capital letter represents DOMINANT trait - lower case letter represents recessive trait If purple flower is dominant to white…. - “R” represents allele for purple - “r” represents allele for white
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Allele Combinations Homozygous having 2 identical alleles at a locus RR or rr Heterozygous having 2 different alleles at a locus
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Genetic Terms A pair of homologous chromosomes A gene locus A pair of alleles Three pairs of genes
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Genotype refers to particular genes an individual carries Phenotype refers to an individual’s physically
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Hrincevich_CH_12_student_outline - Patterns of Inheritance...

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