Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Lecture 7 (CHEM 1010) Agenda: Empirical Formulas Challenges Types of Chemical Reactions Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution Aqueous Reactions and Net Ionic Reactions Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Guidelines Acid, Base and Neutralization Reactions Empirical Formula and Percent Composition Challenge What is the empirical formula of an ingredient of Bufferin tablets that has the percentage composition C14.25%, O 56.93% Mg 28.83% by mass? Empirical Formula and Percent Composition Challenge (contd) Empirical Formula and Percent Composition Challenge-2 Zinc phosphate is used as a dental cement. A 50.00 mg sample is broken down into its constituent elements and gives 16.58 mg of oxygen, 8.02 mg of phosphorus and 25.40 mg of zinc. Determine the empirical formula of zinc phosphate. Empirical Formula and Percent Composition Challenge-2 (contd) Reactions in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solution Reactions : Processes in which an acid reacts with a base to yield water plus a salt. H 2 O( l ) + NaCl( aq ) HCl( aq ) + NaOH( aq ) Reactions : Processes in which soluble reactants yield an insoluble solid product that falls out of solution. 2KNO 3 ( aq ) + PbI 2 ( s ) Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + 2KI( aq ) Reactions : Processes in which one or more electrons are transferred between reaction partners (atoms, molecules, or ions). MgCl 2 ( aq ) + H 2 ( g ) Mg( s ) + 2HCl( aq ) Aqueous Solutions Water is the most plentiful solvent on the earth. Many reactions studied in analytical chemistry are carried out using water as the solvent. Many of the solutes studied in aqueous solutions are . An electrolyte is a substance that dissociates into ions (ionizes) when dissolved in water (or another solvent). The formation of ions results in a solution that can conduct electricity. video Electrolytes in Aqueous Solutions Short video to discuss the concept Electrolytes electrolytes ionize completely in solution. electrolytes ionize only partially in solution. do not ionize at all in solution. nonelectrolyte weak electrolyte strong electrolyte Strong Electrolyte 100% dissociation NaCl ( s ) Na + ( aq ) + Cl- ( aq ) H 2 O Weak Electrolyte not completely dissociated CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO- ( aq ) + H + ( aq ) Conduct electricity in solution? Cations (+) and Anions (-) Ionization of acetic acid CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO- ( aq ) + H + ( aq ) A reversible reaction. The reaction can occur in both directions. Acetic acid is a because its ionization in water is incomplete. Weak Electrolytes Nonelectrolytes do not conduct electricity? No cations (+) and anions (-) in solution C 6 H 12 O 6 ( s ) C 6 H 12 O 6 ( aq ) H 2 O nonelectrolyte Classification of Electrolytes Electrolytes Challenge (a) Look at each compound separately....
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This note was uploaded on 10/25/2011 for the course CHEM 1010 taught by Professor Olga during the Spring '11 term at UOIT.

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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions...

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