powerpoints - Action n n .Thatis Actionincludes n n...

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Action n Cognition begins with action .  That is  why there is a psychology of animals  but not a psychology of plants. n Action includes n Stimulus or input from world n Response of organism
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Memory (Mostly Short-term) n Makes it possible to organize a  sequence of actions into a behavior n Foraging, stalking, chasing, feeding,  courting n Migration
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Learning & Long-term Memory n Stimulus – response associations may  be innate (insects) or learned (most  other creatures). n Learning makes it possible for an  organism to survive in a more  variable environment. n Cats can catch mice or birds or fish.
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Advantages of Learning n Associative Advantages (Rewards) n Emotion makes it possible n Recognition of resources (pleasure, comfort) n Recognition of danger (fear, disgust) n Performative Advantages  n Memory makes it possible for a creature to do  something better the next time. n Mental maps make it possible to find resources  and avoid threats
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Learning begins when a novel  situation is encountered n A novel situation requires, initially, the  widest possible action repertoire and  the ability to modify action in response  to feedback
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Effective Responses to Novel  Situations are Voluntary n A response to a novel situation requires n Ability to compare situation with similar  situations n Select an effective response in a similar  situation and possibly modify it for the  current situation n Such a response is a  voluntary  (i.e.  conscious ) action
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Consciousness n Responses to novel events, by 
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