02_Evolution+1 - Habituation,Sensitization System n n n

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Evolution of Learning 1:  Habituation, Sensitization, &  Classical Conditioning
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The Evolution of the Nervous  System n Cognition begins with action and action  begins with the ability to respond to the world n The ability to respond to the world begins with  the evolution of the nervous system, which  made it possible to detect changes in the  world and respond to them n The simplest responses are called  reflexes
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Reflexes n From the simple sea snail (e.g. gill  withdrawal) through human beings (e.g.  knee jerk, eye blink), virtually all animals  with nervous systems have reflexes. n reflex  is a  response  to a  stimulus
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Reflexes n Simplest reflex arc involves  sensory neuron and motor  neuron which causes muscle  contraction n reflex  is when a signal  from a sensory neuron  stimulates a non-sensory  (e.g. motor) neuron, which  initiates a non-neural  response (e.g. muscle  contraction, hormone  secretion)
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Unconditioned Responses n Reflexes are also called  unconditioned  responses (UR)  because of a mistranslation  from Russian.  Pavlov called reflexes  unconditional responses because the same  stimulus always caused the same response,  regardless of other conditions n e.g. mood of subject, location, etc. n The stimulus of a reflex is called an  unconditioned stimulus (US)  because of  the same mistranslation
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Avoid eye blink Maintain vestibular- ocular pupil dilation muscle contraction spindles, tendons, joints, skin Approach ear pricking salivate None goose bumps Reflexes play important roles in all creatures  that have nervous systems, from simple sea  snails to human beings
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Ubiquity and Variety of  Reflexes n Reflexes include both muscle and  endocrine responses and vary from  simple to complex responses. n e.g. a central pattern generator initiates the  infant swim reflex
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Modifying a Reflex n Habituation and Sensitization n Decrease or increase in response as the result of 
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