02_MotorSystem - MotorSystem VoluntaryMovements n Require n...

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Motor System
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Voluntary Movements n Require n Perception of target n Awareness of location of movable body  part n Ability to aim movement of body part n Ability to detect errors and re-adjust, (use  feedback) n Ability to use feedback to control  movement of body part
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A voluntary action involves  two stages: n Planning: a representation of a body-part  posture or sequence of postures is retrieved n Cortical areas n Parietal cortex n Premotor and supplementary motor cortex n Performance: muscle movements are initiated  to move the body-part(s) into the represented  posture(s)
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Planning An Action n Parietal  cortex n Neurons respond to both visual and tactual inputs n Input used in activating and selecting among plans n Premotor  and  supplementary motor   cortex n Activation and selection of plans n Mirror neurons respond when the same action is  performed or observed
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Planning A Grasp Four steps in planning a  grasping action.   Representations of grasping  hand postures are retrieved from  memory (top panel).  The hand  posture providing the closest fit  to the target is selected (second  panel).  Representations of arm  extensions are retrieved from  memory (third panel).  The arm  extension providing the best fit  with the grasp posture and its  location is selected (bottom  panel). 
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Hierarchical Organization n Complex patterns of movements can be  built up hierarchically by combining  posture plans into a single action plan.  n Advantage of large programs:  n Speed.  Retrieval is faster than construction n Generality.  By categorizing posture plans by  function a single plan is useful in many contexts
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Constructing A Motor Program  (Povel & Collard, 1982) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Position in Sequence Latency(mean rank)
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Motor System for Voluntary  Movements (Actions) n Planning  n Performance n Motor cortex and basal ganglia aim and  initiate body movement n Cerebellum programs muscle movements
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Cortical Motor System
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Motor & Somatosensory Maps
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Motor subsystems n Locomotion n Motor cortex n Manipulation n Motor cortex n Vocalization n Broca’s area n Visual Fixation and tracking n Frontal eye fields
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 Skill Learning n Motor Skill Learning n Distributed versus Massed Practice
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Stages of Motor Skill Learning n Declarative (Instrumental):  Ad hoc voluntary 
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This note was uploaded on 10/26/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOG 303 taught by Professor Arnoldglass during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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02_MotorSystem - MotorSystem VoluntaryMovements n Require n...

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