Lecture+10 (1) - Lecture 10 Grains and Flour Mixtures...

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Lecture 10 Grains and Flour Mixtures
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Cereal Grains Members of the grass family Gramineae Represents the greatest quantity of agricultural product produced worldwide.
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Flour The starting point for all baked products.
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Cereal Grains are milled to produce flour Most commonly used cereal grains are: Rice, wheat, corn, oats, rye, barley
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Human Consumption of Cereal Staple food Principle agricultural crop in geographic areas of the world. Worldwide consumption Easily produced Low cost Nutritional value, especially whole grains—possessing functional food properties (lower CVD risk) recommendation—1/2 of cereal intake should be whole grains
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Typical Grain—caryopses Husk: The rough outer covering protecting the grain. Bran: The hard outer covering just under the husk that protects the grain’s soft endosperm. Endosperm: The largest portion of the grain, containing all of the grain’s starch. Germ: The smallest portion of the grain, and the embryo for a future plant.
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Typical Grain All grains contain the same basic components Husk AKA chaff Protection from weather Bran Source of indigestible fiber Vitamins and minerals Aleurone—high in protein, vitamins and minerals Endosperm Source of complex digestible carbohydrate Germ Embryo High in fat and protein
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Parts of Typical Grain Bran germ endosperm aleurone
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Grain Processing All societies process grain to some degree to ease its use. Some crack—to break kernel and cellulose Ground—meal, flour, starch Fractionation—removal of 1 or more portions of kernel to achieve specific storage or cooking properties Hulling-hulls removed from popcorn to ease popping Milling—bran and germ removed flour Polishing—bran and germ removed white rice Ready-to-eat cereal—fully cooked
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Milling Post harvest cereals are sent to the mill to be ground into flour. Husk and hull removed Whole grain cereal is left Bran, endosperm, germ
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Production of Flour Whole grain flour Palatability Rancidity Bran and germ removed to produce White flour Produced from endosperm Ground into flour (enriched) Bleached (UV light or benzoyl peroxide Enriched white flour
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Wheat Flour Wheat flour is the staple flour used in the U.S. USDA Grades for wheat flour: Highest (1 st ) : patent 2 nd : clear 3 rd : straight Red dog: used for animal feed
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Types of Wheat Flour Whole wheat Graham flour White Used by bakers Bread High gluten content Cake All Purpose Pastry Less finely ground than cake flour Instantized dextrinized Self-rising + leavening agent Semolina Made from durum wheat Used to make pasta
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Types of Non-wheat Flour Chickpea Gram or besan Rye Cornmeal Soy Triticale Hybrid of wheat and rye potato
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Graham Flour
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Lecture+10 (1) - Lecture 10 Grains and Flour Mixtures...

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