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PUBLIC RELATIONS Definitions
Definitions Most equate it with publicity. "Information, activities, and policies by which corporations and other organizations seek to create attitudes favorable to selves and their work, and to counter adverse attention" Definitions
Definitions "art or science of establishing and promoting a favorable relationship with the public through various methods“ “alter perception, reshape reality, and manufacture consent” Relation to propaganda
Relation to propaganda Wartime contexts. But also PR as war model: psywar, infowar. Perception management. Difference from advertising (though Difference from advertising (though 2 are converging): idea/service vs. product advertising is a controlled publicity that a company or individual buys. Paid vs free media Difference from advertising (though Difference from advertising (though 2 are converging): PR does not usually clearly announce its presence. indirect means PR does not depend on mass media. Can be interpersonal (e.g. political lobbying, press luncheons). FYI: Different types: FYI: Different types: Corporate Communications (employees & public)
Media Relations (publicity agents)
Financial Relations (lenders, shareholders, regs)
Public Affairs (government and policy issues)
Crisis Management (unforeseen disaster)
War propaganda Titles:
Titles: Publicist Press officer Communications Specialist Public Affairs Specialist Image Consultant Information Officer Perception manager Tactics: Tactics: Press Releases. Video News Release (VNR). Pseudoevents. Press conferences. False fronts. Spin control. Spin doctors. Flak. Local opinion leaders. Different institutions
Different institutions 1) Independent firms/Agencies. (e.g. Edelman, Burson Marsteller, Hill & Knowlton, Ketchum) Small proportion. 2) Inhouse. – A) Private (business, churches, unions)
– B) Public (White House, Pentagon, Rutgers). 3) Specialized consultants. E.g. Political What’s in a Name?
What’s in a Name?
FROM TO Philip Morris Altria Group Countrywide Bank of America Home Loans Abu Ghraib Bagdad Central Prison Blackwater Xe When do we call it?
When do we call it?
Banana PreModern: From force to PreModern: From force to persuasion. Ancient: poems, architecture, religious texts. The Sophists: skills of public speaking, often arguing whichever side of an issue that hired them. PreModern PreModern Julius Caesar: Reports of War. First news is also first PR. American Revolution
American Revolution Boston Tea Party: early “pseudoevent” Oratory, Newspapers, meetings, committees, pamphlets,and correspondence. PT Barnum. Stunts and promotions for client. People like to be fooled. Early Press agents
Early Press agents worked for theaters and circuses. Often bribed for publicity (free tix). “Deadheading” Press agents
Press agents Myths and legends via puffery Modern
Modern Around turn of 20th century: PR blossoms as systematic enterprise, primarily as damage control for businesses. Reasons for PR’s 20thC rise
Reasons for PR’s 20thC rise Muckrakers. Labor disputes. Modern PR arises because businesses respond to negative publicity. It is happening again..
It is happening again.. Feb 2009. GM hires Michael Whouley (Democratic Party Presidential campaign organizer) to build public support. Superbowl video Key Personalities and Events:
Key Personalities and Events: Ivy Lee. Made PR respectable. Ivy Lee
Ivy Lee Declaration of Principles: From" public be damned" to "public be informed.“ Key Personalities and Events:
Key Personalities and Events:
Emphasis on "honesty," openness, facts. Be frank and direct, not secretive. Promote positive image and viewpoint. Give shape to events and facts, even if misleading. Key Personalities and Events:
Key Personalities and Events: Edward Bernays. Modernized PR. Brought social science techniques to PR. Key Personalities and Events:
Key Personalities and Events: "Engineer consent." Truth is relative. emotions and visual images. Bernays
Bernays Lucky Strike: “Reach for a Lucky instead of a Sweet” Green 2 Models: 2 Models: a) 1Way Flow (disseminate facts from client to public). Lee. 2 Models: 2 Models: b) 2Way Flow (social scientific attempt to understand audiences needs and desires so message is more effective). Bernays. Feedback: Not changing what client does (public policy, production), but how it sells it. Public Relations and Public Relations and Democracy Secrecy. Stealth nature of activities. Why does PR industry want to remain out of view? Is this inherently problematic? What would happen if public relations were publicized? Does not always inform
Does not always inform Blocking access to information. Preventing negative publicity, corporate criticism. Hidden dangers of clients' products Who represents “public interest”?
Who represents “public interest”? Who funds that representation? Access imbalance. Grassroots vs. astroturf
Grassroots vs. astroturf The League of American Voters Industry Responds:
Industry Responds: Right to have point of view in public debate. Informs and educates. Philanthropy. Commercial Speech
Commercial Speech Same as political speech? If not, what restrictions are reasonable in society that considers itself free and democratic? ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/26/2011 for the course JOURNALISM 567:274 taught by Professor Braitich during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.
- Fall '10