262S11+PP_10b+-+The+Greater+Middle+East+_Part+2_

262S11+PP_10b+-+The+Greater+Middle+East+_Part+2_ -...

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EXTERNAL
INFLUENCE:
Globaliza5on
 •  Crea5on
of
global
economic
system
and
 accompanying
social
changes
brings
formerly
 separate
cultures
into
close
contact
 •  Intrusion
of
Western
beliefs
&
prac5ces
resented
by
 tradi5onal
ME
leaders
 •  Reduced
interpenetra-on
of
cultures
unlikely
 INTERNAL
PROBLEMS:
Collapse
of
 old
ME
socie5es

 •  Islamic
states
peak
300‐600
years
BP;
1920s
in
deep
decline
following
 collapse
of
OUoman
Empire
 –  European
powers
carved
out
some
(ar5ficial)
successor
states
 (Syria,
Lebanon,
Jordan)
 –  20C
ME
states
experienced
varying
degrees
of
change

 »  economic
but
not
poli5cal
change
(Saudi
Arabia)
 »  failed
revolu5ons
(Egypt,
Syria,
Libya)


 »  modernized
under
secular
leaders
(Turkey,
Iran?)
 »  innova5ve
governance
arrangements
(Lebanon)


 »  neither
economic
nor
poli5cal
change
(Afghanistan)
 –  What
stage
has
the
post‐O9oman
collapse
reached?
Are
we
at
a
 new
stage
indicated
by
recent
revolts?
 MOST
RECENT
GREAT
MIDDLE
EAST
EMPIRE
 INTERNAL
PROBLEMS:
Failure
to
 develop
successful
alterna5ves

 –  Few
strong
na5onalisms
that
might
support
modern
secular
states

 •  Complex
compe5ng
iden55es
(religious,
ethnic,
kinship,
urban/ rural)


 •  Vola5le
poli5cs
of
land,
water
&
territory
because
much
seUlement
 is
marginal
 –  loss
of
land
is
more
than
loss
of
property;
it
is
loss
of
ability
to
 be
self‐sustaining
in
a
land
of
scarci5es;
iden5fica5on
with
local
 places
is
strong
though
iden5fica5on
with
the
na5on
is
weak
 •  Opposi5on
of
colonial
powers
 •  Should
the
West
welcome
new
ME
na-onalisms?

 INTERNAL
PROBLEMS:
Young
rapidly
growing
literate
 popula5ons
with
high
unemployment
(2010
data)

 Country
 Ann.
%

growth
 rate
(Doubling
 Ame
in
years)
 %
below
15
years
 %
adult
literacy
 Yemen
 2.97
(24)
 43.5
 75/35









 Syria
 2.52
(28)
 36.4
 86/73
 Libya
 1.97
(36)
 36.0
 97/94
 Egypt
 1.76
(40)
 31.8
 83/60
 Israel
 1.66
(42)
 26.3
 97/94
 Iran

 1.35
(51)
 21.7
 86/73
 Tunisia
 1.08
(64)
 23.2
 83/65



 USA:
0.97%
ann.
Growth
(70);
20.2%
under
15
years;
99%
literacy;
youth
unemployment
19.6%
 Middle
East
as
a
whole
youth
unemployment
rates
are
c.
20%
(men)
and
30%
(female);

 ISRAEL:
Introduc5on
of
a
conten5ous
 problem
 •  Crea5on
of
the
state
of
Israel
1948
 •  Jewish
state
in
the
territory
of
Pales5ne
which
was
a
 province
of
the
OUoman
Empire
 –  Created
as
a
homeland
for
Jewish
people
who
were
widely
 scaUered
&
ogen
persecuted
elsewhere
 –  Carved
out
of
territory
(willingly
&
unwillingly)
acquired
 from
(Pales5nian)
Arabs
some
of
whom
became
Israel
 na5onals
but
most
fled
to
surrounding
territories
as
 refugees

 –  Jewish
immigra5on
con5nued
to
swell
Israel’s
popula5on;
 displaced
Arabs
also
con5nued
to
increase
&
now
wish
to
 establish
an
independent
state
of
Pales5ne


 The
land
of
Israel‐Pales5ne
 •  Southern
‐
Negev
Desert
(very
sparsely
seUled)
 •  Northern
‐
plain‐hills‐rig
valley‐hills
sequence
 •  50
mile
W‐E
Cross
sec5on
near
Tel
Aviv
 –  Coastal
plain
15
miles
wide
(includes
Gaza)
 –  1st
range
of
hills
25
miles
wide,
rising
to
2,500’
in
central
crest;
rain
fed
 forests
&
agriculture
on
W
slope;
Judean
Desert
on
E.
slope:
(Parts
in
 West
Bank)
 –  Deep
Jordan
rig
valley
(up
to
1,300’
below
sea
level)
10‐15
mls
wide
 (half
West
Bank;
half
Jordan
&
Syria)
 –  2nd
range
of
hills
(in
Jordan
&
Syria);
rain
fed
agriculture
on
W.
slope
 Popula5on
&
area

 •  Israel

 –  Area:
8,000
sq.mls
(=
slightly
>
NJ)
 –  Popula5on:
7.7
million
(2010)

 »  75%
Jewish
(places
of
birth:
70%
Israel;
22%
Europe
&
North
 America;
10%
Afric
and
Asia);
16‐20%
non‐Jewish
(mostly
Arab
 Sunni
Muslims
plus
smaller
Druze
&
Chris5an
groups);[email protected] 1.7%/yr
for
Jewish
and
2.8%
for
Arab
Muslims
 •  West
Bank
&
Gaza
 –  Area:
2,300
sq.
mls
(=
somewhat
>
Delaware)
 –  Popula5on:
4
million
(2010)
 »  Almost
all
Pales5nian
Arab
Muslims
(mainly
Sunni);
es5mated
 half
million
in
refugee
camps;
rapid
growth
West
Bank
2.2%,
 Gaza
3.4%;
c.
225
Jewish
seUlements
erected
since
1967
war
 Recent
historical
background
of
Israel‐ Pales5ne
 –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  16thC
‐
1917:
province
of
Turkish
(OUoman)
Empire;
mixed
Arab
(majority)
&
Jewish
(minority)
 1917‐1948:
area
administered
by
UK
(“Bri5sh
Mandate”)
 1920‐1940s:
increased
immigra5on
of
Jews
from
Europe
to
Israel;
immigra5on
of
Arabs
from
Syria
 1947:
Jordan
created
from
E.
half;
UN
proposed
par55on
of
rest
between

an
Arab
&
a
Jewish
state
 1948:
State
of
Israel
created
from
W.
por5on;
Up
to
1
million
Pales5nian
Arabs
became
refugees
in
West
Bank
(Jordan);
 Gaza
strip
(Egypt);
Lebanon
&
other
Arab
states
 1956
Israel
v.
Arab
states
war
 1950s‐present:
con5nued
immigra5on
of
Jews
from
N.
Africa,
Middle
East
&
former
USSR

 1960‐early
80s:
emergence
of
Pales5nian
poli5cal
iden5ty;
focus
shigs
to
Israel
v
Pales5nian
conflict
 1967:
Israel
occupied
West
Bank,
Gaza,
Golan
(Syria)
 1973
Israel
v.
Arab
states
war
 1978‐86:
Israel
occupies
S.
Lebanon
 1987‐1993:
First
in5fada
 1992‐2000:
Oslo
Accords;
“land
for
peace”
agreements;
Pales5nian
control
of
W.
Bank
&
Gaza
 2000:
Peace
breakdown:
Second
in5fada
begins
 2002:
Israel
reoccupies
West
Bank
&
Gaza
 2005:
Israel
withdraws
from
Gaza
 2006:
Israel‐Lebanon
border
conflict
 2009:

Israel
reoccupies
Gaza

and
later
withdraws
 A:
BriAsh
post
World
War
I
PalesAne
Mandate
 B:
UN
proposal
for
the
division
of
the
non‐Jordan
part
of
the
 Mandate
territory 
 A
 B
 Mutuali5es
of
Israeli
Jews
&
Pales5nian
Arabs
 •  Long
histories
of
con5nuous
seUlement
 •  Discrimina5on
&
persecu5on
 –  Holocaust;
Nabka

 •  Unwanted
diasporas
 •  Similar
sized
popula5ons
occupying
adjacent
 territories
with
similar
ecosystems
&
life‐ways
 Conten5ous
issues
of
the
conflict
 •  •  •  •  Territorial
limits
of
the
Pales5nian
state
 Return
of
Arab
refugees
 Israel’s
Arab
popula5on
 Role
of
Jerusalem
 Territorial
limits
of
Pales5nian
state
 •  •  Security
 •  strategic
distances,
buffer
zones
&
secure
corridors
 •  Golan
Heights
military
overlook
 •  Jewish
seUlements
in
West
Bank
&
Gaza
 Resources
 •  water
resource
development
 •  Golan
Heights
watershed
 –  To
what
degree
should
a
Pales0nian
state
be
territorially
fragmented?
Can
it
 func0on
as
such?

 Secure
borders
 •  Compe5ng
perspec5ves
 –  Israelis
point
to
the
small
size
and
spa5al
 vulnerability
of
their
state
 –  Pales5nians
point
to
the
imprac5cability
of
 administering
a
mul5ply
fragmented
state

 Par5san
Cartography
 (Note
different
scales)
 Small
narrow
difficult‐to‐defend
territory

















Fragmented,
dispersed
&
appropriated
territory
 Israeli
concern
(“strategic
distances”)

































Pales5nian
concern
 “secure
corridors”
 •  Pales5nian
 seUlement
 






Israeli
 seUlement
 See
excellent
maps
7‐14,

 7‐15
and
7‐16
in
text.
 Pales5nian
refugees
 •  C.
4.7
MILLION
TOTAL
(UN,
2010)
 –  Jordan’s
(world’s
largest)
refugee
 popula5on
‐1,
951,000
(c.
30%
of
all
 Jordanian
residents)
 –  Gaza
‐








1,100,000
(of
1.6
million
total)
 –  West
Bank
‐

780,000
(of
2.5
million
total)
 –  Syria
‐













470,000
(not
all
from
Israel)
 –  Lebanon
‐






425,000
(not
all
from
Israel)
 –  Others
in
Saudi
Arabia,
Iraq,
Kuwait,
 Yemen

 What
will
happen
to
1
million
Pales5nian
refugees
(&
their
 families)
who
wish
to
return
to
lands
within
Israel? 
 •  Displaced
Arabs
also
claim
compensa5on
for
losses
suffered

 •  Israel’s
Jewish
popula5on
fear
adding
a
poten5ally
hos5le
group
to
the
 state
&
are
unsure
of
effects
on
the
exis5ng
1
M.
Israeli
Arabs
(c.
20%
 of
Israel’s
total
popula5on).

 •  What
is
the
historic
record
in
similar
situa-ons?
How
have
 states
with
closely
intermixed
&
mutually
hos-le
popula-ons

 managed
to
avoid
conflicts?
What
alterna-ves
are
possible?

 Social
cleavages
of
Israel
society
 •  Jews
vs.
Non‐Jews
 –  Rapid
pop.
growth
among
non‐Jews,
Muslims,
Druze,
Chris5ans
 •  Secular
vs.
Orthodox
Jews
 –  Rising
propor5on
of
Orthodox
Jews
(esp.
in
Jerusalem)
 •  Ashkenazi
vs.
Sephardic
Jews
 –  Loca5on
(Germany/Eastern
Europe
v
Iberia);
Rites

 –  Declining
propor5on
of
Jews
from
N.
&
E
Europe

 •  Non‐Oriental
vs.
Oriental
Jews
 –  Oriental
=
African
&
Asian;
Likkud
Party
affilia5on
 –  Influx
of
Russian
Jews
 •  rethinking
role
of
state
&
religion
 Jerusalem:
Who
is
in
charge?
 •  Popula5on
c.
700,000
 •  Sacred
space
of
Jews,
Chris5ans
&
Muslims
 –  Western
Wall
of
the
Temple
 –  Church
of
the
Holy
Sepulcher

 –  Dome
of
the
Rock
 •  Interna5onal
jurisdic5on
in
UK
&
UN
agreements
 •  Listed
as
Israeli’s
capital
ager
1967
capture
but
most
countries
don’t
 recognize
it
in
that
role;
Claimed
as
capital
of
Pales5nian
state
 •  Suburban
ring
of
Israeli‐occupied
seUlements
 –  History
of
Peace
Walls
&
jointly
administered
ci-es
is
not
promising?
(Belfast;
 Londonderry;
Berlin;
Trieste)
 ...
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This document was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course GEO 262 at Rutgers.

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