organic - Organic contaminants in the environment Chemical...

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1 Organic contaminants in the environment Chemical principle: non-polar organic compounds have low aqueous solubilities, but high affinities for organic solvents Paradigm: many organic contaminants are highly “hydrophobic” compounds that have a strong affinity for organic matter-rich suspended particles, sediments, and aquatic biota I. Hydrophobicity: water-water bonds are stronger than water-non-polar organic compound bonds • oil spreads out over water, but oil and vinegar form separate phases hydrophobic hydrophilic ("afraid of water") ("lover of water") • uncharged and nonpolar • charged ions and polar compounds compounds very hydrophobic very hydrophilic hexane, octane Na + , Ca 2+ , Cl - , SO 4 2- , C u 2+ , Hg 2+ , Cd 2+ , CdCl + benzene, phenanthrene acetone trichloroethene (TCE) ethanol HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- somewhat hydrophobic: CO 2aq , H 2 CO 3 , HgCl 2aq
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2 II. How do we assess a compound's hydrophobicity? 1. compare aqueous solubilities (Table 10-3, p. 426): C w sat = molar concentration of compound in water at equilibrium (saturated) with pure compound in its natural state (gas, liquid, solid) at specified temperature and pressure. 2. compare octanol-water partition coefficients (Table 10-3, p. 426)
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This note was uploaded on 10/25/2011 for the course ENVSCI 202 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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organic - Organic contaminants in the environment Chemical...

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