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sox - Sulfur oxidation in the troposphere(O H2S SO2 > H2SO4...

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Sulfur oxidation in the troposphere (O) H 2 S, SO 2 ––––> H 2 SO 4 Annual Fluxes Sulfur sources (Tg S y -1 ) –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– fossil fuel combustion: 67 biomass burining: 2.5 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– total anthropogenic 69.5 biogenic reduced sulfur (land) 0.35 biogenic reduced sulfur (ocean) 17 volcanic emissions 7.5 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– total natural 24.9 Oxidation of SO 2 to sulfuric acid: 1. Dry air mechanism (clear sky conditions):
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2. Aqueous-phase mechanism (humid conditions): a. dissolution of SO 2 into cloud water droplets: SO 2(g) + H 2 O H 2 SO 3(aq) b. SO 2 oxidation: • reaction with H 2 O 2(aq) : H 2 SO 3 + H 2 O 2(aq) ––––> H 2 O + SO 4 2- + 2H + • reaction with O 3(aq) : k 1 HSO 3 - + O 3(aq) ––––> O 2 + SO 4 2- + H + k 2 SO 3 2- + O 3(aq) ––––> O 2 + SO 4 2- total rate = k 1 [HSO 3 - ][O 3(aq) ] + k 2 [SO 3 2- ][O 3(aq) ] By reaction with HSO
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