COLIFORMS - COLIFORMS Indicator Bacteria and Water Quality...

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COLIFORMS Indicator Bacteria and Water Quality Testing
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FECAL POLLUTION Exposure to fecally contaminated water does not always translate into infection. However, the higher the fecal bacterial levels in water, the higher the chances of pathogens to be present in significant numbers too. Among the diseases associated with poor microbial water quality, those causing dehydrating diarrhea are of critical importance as they could lead to death within 48 hours after the initial symptoms. These extreme cases are more predominant in countries where overcrowding and poor sanitary conditions are the norm. Examples of fecal waterborne diseases are gastroenteritis, typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, salmonellosis, cholera, meningitis, hepatitis, encephalitis, amoebic meningoencephalitis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, dysentery, and amoebic dysentery (Table 3 From Jorge W. Santo Domingo , Nicholas J. Ashbolt (Lead Author); Avanish K. Panikkar (Topic Editor) . "Fecal pollution of water". In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment). [First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth March 18, 2010; Last revised Date March 18, 2010; Retrieved October 10, 2010 < http://www.eoearth.org/article/Fecal_pollution_of_water >
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Table 3. Examples of waterborne pathogens Name of micro-organisms Major diseases Major reservoirs and primary sources Bacteria Salmonella typhi Typhoid fever Human feces Salmonella paratyphi Paratyphoid fever Human feces Other Salmonella Salmonellosis Human and animal feces Shigella spp. Bacillary dysentery Human feces Vibrio cholera Cholera Human feces and freshwater zooplankton Enteropathogenic E. coli Gastroenteritis Human feces Yersinia enterocolitica Gastroenteritis Human and animal feces Campylobacter jejuni Gastroenteritis Human and animal feces Leptospira spp. Leptospirosis Animal and human urine Various mycobacteria Pulmonary illness Soil and water
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Table 3. Examples of waterborne pathogens
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