paxson-routing

paxson-routing - End-to-End Routing Behavior in the...

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End-to-End Routing Behavior in the Internet Vern Paxson Network Research Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California, Berkeley [email protected] Abstract The large-scale behavior of routing in the Internet has gone virtually without any formal study, the exceptions being Chinoy's analysis of the dynamics of Internet routing information [Ch93], and recent work, similar in spirit, by Labovitz, Malan and Jahanian [LMJ97]. We report on an analysis of 40,000 end-to-end route measurements conducted using repeated “traceroutes” between 37 Internet sites. We analyze the routing behavior for pathological conditions, rout- ing stability, and routing symmetry. For pathologies, we character- ize the prevalence of routing loops, erroneous routing, infrastruc- ture failures, and temporary outages. We find that the likelihood of encountering a major routing pathology more than doubled be- tween the end of 1994 and the end of 1995, rising from 1.5% to 3.3%. For routing stability, we define two separate types of stabil- ity, “prevalence,” meaning the overall likelihood that a particular route is encountered, and “persistence,” the likelihood that a route remains unchanged over a long period of time. We find that In- ternet paths are heavily dominated by a single prevalent route, but that the time periods over which routes persist show wide varia- tion, ranging from seconds up to days. About 2/3's of the Internet paths had routes persisting for either days or weeks. For routing symmetry, we look at the likelihood that a path through the Internet visits at least one different city in the two directions. At the end of 1995, this was the case half the time, and at least one different autonomous system was visited 30% of the time. 1 Introduction The large-scale behavior of routing in the Internet has gone virtually without any formal study, the exceptions being Chinoy's analysis of the dynamics of Internet routing in- formation [Ch93], and recent work, similar in spirit, by Labovitz, Malan and Jahanian [LMJ97]. In this paper we analyze 40,000 end-to-end route measurements conducted using repeated “traceroutes” between 37 Internet sites. The main questions we strive to answer are: What sort of patholo- This paper appears in IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 5(5), pp. 601-615. An earlier version appears in the Proceedings of SIG- COMM '96. The work was supported by the Director, Office of Energy Research, Office of Computational and Technology Research, Mathemati- cal, Information, and Computational Sciences Division of the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. gies and failures occur in Internet routing? Do routes remain stable over time or change frequently? Do routes from to tend to be symmetric (the same in reverse) as routes from to ?
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This note was uploaded on 10/26/2011 for the course CS 7260 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Tech.

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paxson-routing - End-to-End Routing Behavior in the...

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