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Critical Thinking IExercise 2Instructions: A passage is given below. The instructions for the passage are the following:(a) Under the heading “The author argues that,” list the explicit conclusions for which the authorargues (if there are any).(b) Under the heading “The author explains why,” list the explicit statements for which the author provides a causal explanation (if there are any). Reminder: a causal explanation is an explanation that answers a “why” question, such as “Why did Jill break up with Jack?”Note: There may be some items that belong in both lists. This will be the case if there are someexplicit statements in the passage for which the author argues and for which the author also provides a causal explanation.Example:Passage: Harriet must be amused because she is laughing. She is laughing because Hans told her a joke. Unfortunately, Harriet doesn’t like to laugh – everybody knows that this is true. But whydoesn’t she like to laugh? The answer is that whenever she laughs she gets a headache. Therefore, it’s too bad that Hans told her a joke.(a) The author argues that:1. Harriet must be amused.2. It’s too bad that Hans told Harriet a joke.(b) The author explains why:1. Harriet is laughing.2. Harriet doesn’t like to laugh.3. It’s too bad that Hans told Harriet a joke.Background information: The following passage consists of excerpts from an article by StephenMarche entitled “Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?” The article appeared in The Atlantic magazine in May 2012. Some of the excerpted paragraphs have been shortened. The passage refers at one point to an “AARP survey.” The AARP is a non-profit American organization for people aged 50 and over.PassageFACEBOOK ARRIVED IN THE MIDDLEof a dramatic increase in the quantity and intensityof human loneliness, a rise that initially made the site’s promise of greater connection seemdeeply attractive. Americans are more solitary than ever before. In 1950, less than 10 percent ofAmerican households contained only one person. By 2010, nearly 27 percent of households hadjust one person. Solitary living does not guarantee a life of unhappiness, of course. In his recentbook about the trend toward living alone, Eric Klinenberg, a sociologist at NYU, writes: “Reams
of published research show that it’s the quality, not the quantity of social interaction, that bestpredicts loneliness.” We know intuitively that loneliness and being alone are not the same thing. Solitude can belovely. Crowded parties can be agony. We also know, thanks to a growing body of research onthe topic, that loneliness is not a matter of external conditions; it is a psychological state. A 2005