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1560–8530/2004/06–3–511–516 Antifungal Activity of Allelopathic Plant Extracts IV: Growth Response of Drechslera hawaiiensis, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium monilifrome to Aqueous Extract of Parthenium hysterophorus RUKHSANA BAJWA, SOBIYA SHAFIQUE, TEHMINA ANJUM AND SHAZIA SHAFIQUE Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore– Pakistan ABSTRACT Allelopathic potential of Parthenium hysterophorus L., against three pathogenic fungal species viz. Drechslera hawaiiensis (M.B.Ellis), Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl and Fusarium monilifrome Sheld was studied. These species were subjected to various concentrations of aqueous extracts of aerial parts of P. hysterophorus in liquid malt extract medium. The dry biomass productivity assays were carried out periodically with 5 days intervals up to fifteen days. The growth of all the three test pathogenic species was generally inhibited by lower concentrations viz. 10, 20, 30 and 50% of the Parthenium extracts while aqueous extracts of higher concentrations (60 and 70%) stimulated biomass production of test fungal species. Key Words: Allelopathy; Parthenium hysterophorus; Drechslera hawaiiensis; Alternaria alternata; Fusarium monilifrome INTRODUCTION Parthenium hysterophorus is an herbaceous annual or ephemeral member of the Asteraceae. The origin of P. hysterophorus is considered to be Mexico, America, Trinidad and Argentina. Within last 100 years, it has found its way to Africa, Australia and Asia. In Australia and India P. hysterophorus has achieved the status of "Worst weed". Within last ten years it has become one of the seven most obnoxious weeds of the world (Singla, 1992). P. hysterophorus is an allelopathic weed and it inhibits the germination and growth of several crop plants and trees (Basak 1984; Srivastava et al ., 1985; Dayama, 1986; Swaminathan et al ., 1990). The allelopathic potential of P. hysterophorus weed results from the release of phytotoxic substances such as, ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, chlorogenic, p coumaric and p -hydroxybenzoic acids, parthenin, ambrosin and coronopilin (Jarvis et al., 1985). Aqueous extract of many allelopathic plants are
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known to exhibit antifungal properties. Hassan et al . (1992) reported that leaf extracts of Datura stramonium reduced the development of rust pustules on the leaves of wheat. Mughal et al . (1996) observed that aqueous leaf extracts of Allium sativum , Datura alba and Withania somnifera inhibited the growth of Alternaria alternata, A. brassicola and Myrothecium roridum . According to Khan et al . (1998) aqueous extract of Allium cepa exhibited antifungal activity against Helminthosporium turcicum and Ascochyta rabiei and that of Calotropis procera against Alternaria redicina . Recently, Bajwa
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