Lecture2 - Lecture 2: Culture and Socialization (Chapters 2...

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Lecture 2: Culture and Socialization (Chapters 2 and 3) - Culture o Sociological definition of society is a group of people who are relatively self-sufficient and share a common territory (a field or sphere of action, thought, …. o Total way of life shared by members of society Mechanism by which society survives in that environment Often taken for granted o Two types Material Culture Man-made physical objects Based on tools and technology A physical representation of the non-material culture Non-material Culture An integrated system of learned behavior patterns that are characteristics of members of a society o Components of Culture Symbols – we create reality of meaning The symbolic meaning of an object can vary from culture to culture Shared symbols allow for communication Symbols have a tendency to evolve or change over time Beliefs – conceptions about what is true in the world Ideas about what exists, how they work, and how they are related Values – shared ideas of right and wrong and desirable goals Norms – shared rules of conduct that guides behavior in particular situation Folkways reflect customary/habitual ways of doing Mores - strong feelings of right or wrong (incest) Law – rules that allow sanctions by a political authority for violation Difference between laws and norms o Laws are universal o Laws have authority of the state Legal sanctions occur when law violation occurs Language – written or verbal symbols to communicate Linguistic Relativity – language reflects culture, but also influences culture because our ideas are transmitted through language The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis – the language of society is structured around the world-view of that society and our
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thoughts and behaviors are at least partially determined by the language we speak Cultures become distinct through o Different adaptation needs o Geographical barriers o Technology o History o And they are transmitted through language o Sources of Cultural Change Innovation – internal source of change involving the development
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Lecture2 - Lecture 2: Culture and Socialization (Chapters 2...

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