Lecture3 - Lecture 3 Demography and Social Ecology(Chapter...

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Lecture 3: Demography and Social Ecology (Chapter 14) (on test 2: 14, 6, 7, 8) - Demography – subfield in sociology. The study of populations and population change o Why study? – increases and decreases in population have powerful impacts on social, economic, and political structures in society o 3 Demographic Variables Fertility – refers to the actual # of children born in a population Fertility Rate – average # of children born per woman over lifetime o World – 2.8 per female o U.S. – 2.0 per female Crude Birth Rate - # of live births per 1,000 people annually o U.S. 1947 – 27 per 1,000 o U.S. 2004 – 14 per 1,000 What affects the birth rate? o Status of women When women have rights they have more control over sexual habits o Economic development Provides opportunities external to family (decreases birth rate) Agricultural environment – more kids Industrial environment – less kids o Availability of contraceptives Mortality – refers to the number of deaths in a population
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