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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 7 Groups and Organizations (Chapter 4) (OMIT pages 95, 96)- Sociologists study groups not individuals- Emile Durkheim o If there is such a science as sociology, it can only be the study of a world hitherto unknown, different from those explored by other sciences. o The individual is a consequence, not a determinant of social structures o People are affected by groups to which they belong o Social structure in terms of a network of status, roles and cultures- Types of Groups (distinguish groups based on strength of social relationships) o Distinction is important because different groups serve different functions o Primary Groups smaller in size, intimate relationships, not task oriented; warm and fuzzy; family and friends; security and stability; emotion laden Gemeinschaft Backstage (act like yourself around them) o Secondary Groups task oriented, impersonal, specialized ties with others; businesses, universities, hospitals, military; cold and sharp; specified interactions (resident, mailman / teacher, student); representative; need to achieve personal and group goals Gesellschaft Frontstage (interact as your representative not yourself) Enable you to get education, cable, clean running water, etc. A lot of marketing trying to create gemeinschaft out of gesellschaft (were your family)- Group Solidarity o Significance of group derives from its capacity to affect the group members, this capacity varies o Why some groups better able to affect the lives of group members than others? o The members of solidary groups act in ways that are consistent with collective standards of conduct of norms, because they are obligated to do so. o More solidary groups require more extensive obligations from members o An obligation implies a contribution without corresponding recompense or quid pro quo o When people are obliged to contribute some portion of their private resources due to their group membership, presumably they exchange theses private resources for access to collective resources o The less extensive a groups obligation, the greater the extent of the members to engage in independent action o Group Solidarity is a function of two factors The extensiveness of group obligations The degree to which members actually comply with these obligations o The greater the average proportion of each members private resources contributed to collective ends, the greater the solidarity of the group- Back to Tonnies o Gesellschaft relationships produce limited normative obligations Voluntary exchange between parties Like an economic transaction in which each persons rights and obligations are contractually specified (defines scope and legally enforceable) Motivated by narrow self-interest; characterized by a high degree of individualism and impersonality o A persons motivation to establish a gesellschaft relationship is based on rational o A persons motivation to establish a gemeinschaft relationship is non-rational / based on...
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- Spring '07