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Unformatted text preview: ANTH 1001 – Test 2 1. Definitions a. Species is a group of interbreeding organisms that are reproductively isolated from other such groups. b. Taxonomy is the science of the classification of organisms c. Systematics is the study of relationships among organisms 2. Linneaus devised the taxonomic scheme that we use today a. This is the order for humans. i. Kingdom Animalia ii. Phylum Chordata iii. Class Mammalia iv. Order Primates v. Family Homindae vi. Genus Homo vii. Species sapien b. Formal taxonomic name for a species consist of both the Genus and species – Genus species or Genus species . 3. Linnaeus was a creationist; modern biologists are evolutionists. Therefore, there will be some differences between us and Linnaeus in the use of taxonomy. a. Concept of a species i. To Linnaeus, there is no fundamental difference between the taxonomic categories. Each group of organisms (in other words, taxon) assigned to a category have their own unique “essence.” An essence is a suite of traits that distinguishes one taxon from other taxa. Therefore, species differe among themselves in their essences. For species that have partial overlap in their essences then these species may be classified together in the same genus. Each genus has a unique essences for those genera that have partial overlay of their essence then these genera may be classified together in the same family. Consequently, there is no fundamental difference among the taxonomic categories. Modern biologists regard the species caergory as being different from the higher taxonomic categories. The species category consists of groups of organisms that are real, indentifiable, biological units. The higher taxonomic categories are not true biological units. The higher categories are simply human constructs. The classification of species into higher taxonomic categories is based on a researcher’s opinion. There should be no difference in classification at the species level; there may be differences in classification at the higher taxonomic categories. b. Evolutionary Implications i. Linnaeus was a creationist and species didn’t evolve. Taxonomy served to facilitate information, communication, and taxonomy illustrated the order in nature fashioned by a creator. Modern biologists use taxonomy to make evolutionary statements. For example, two species classified in the same genus are inferred to share a closer phylogenetic relationship with one another than they do with any other species. c. Definition i. Phylogeny is evolutionary lines of descent. ii. Ancestor is descendant relationship. 4. There are two limitations in making in using taxonomy to make evolutionary statements a. One cannot express exact ancestor-descendent relationship....
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- Fall '07
- Physical Anthropology, i., New World Monkeys, Anthropoids, dental formula