Chapter 7 - Chapter7:Deformation: fracturing 16:28

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Chapter 7: Deformation: Modification of rocks by folding and  fracturing 16:28 The steady motion of the plates causes deformation at plate boundaries The deformation that occurs results in folding and faulting. Strike is the compass direction of a rock layer as it intersects with the horizontal The dip, which is measured at right angles to the strike, is simply the amount of tilting or  the angle at which the bed inclines from the horizontal Geologic maps – represent the rock formations exposed at the Earth’s surface. Geologic cross sections – diagrams showing the features that would be visible if vertical  slices were made through part of the crust. The tectonic forces that act on rocks at plate boundary zones are horizontally directed,  and the type of force depends on the relative plate motion. Tensional forces – stretch and pull formations apart, dominate at divergent plate  boundaries. Compressive forces – squeeze and shorten rock formations, dominate convergent  boundaries. Shearing forces – push two sides of a formation in opposite directions, dominate at  transform fault boundaries. Cold, shallow (low pressure) rock behaves in a brittle fashion.  It breaks and faults when  forces are applied.  Hot, deep (high pressure) rock behaves in a ductile fashion (pliable  and like play dough).
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