Chapter_2_-_Overweight_and_obesity_(Fall_2011_final)

Chapter_2_-_Overweight_and_obesity_(Fall_2011_final) -...

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Chapter 2 Nutrition and Obesity NS6340 Shu Wang
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Facts of Overweight and Obesity Friedman JM. Nature . 2009 May 21;459(7245):340-2.
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Nearly one-third of U.S. adults are obese • All adults: 63.6 million (31.4 percent) • Women: 35 million (33.2 percent) • Men: 28.6 million (29.5 percent)
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About two-thirds of U.S. adults are overweight or obese • All adults: 133.6 million (66 percent) • Women: 65 million (61.6 percent) • Men: 68.3 million (70.5 percent)
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Less than one-third of U.S. adults are at a healthy weight • All adults: 65.4 million (32.3 percent) • Women: 38.1 million (36.1 percent) • Men: 27.4 million (28.3 percent)
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Obesity trends among U.S. adults 2004
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The prevalence of overweight or obesity in minorities • Non-Hispanic Black Women: 79.6 percent Mexican-American Women: 73 percent Non-Hispanic White Women: 57.6 percent • Non-Hispanic Black Men: 67 percent Mexican-American Men: 74.6 percent Non-Hispanic White Men: 71 percent
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National estimated cost of obesity Total Cost: $147 billion in 2008
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Ahima RS . J Clin Invest. 2011 Jun 1;121(6):2076-9. Prevalence of obesity in the world Men Women
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Worldwide estimates of average caloric intake 2008 Ahima RS . J Clin Invest. 2011 Jun 1;121(6):2076-9.
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Health consequences • Coronary heart disease • Type 2 diabetes • Cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon) • Hypertension (high blood pressure) • Dyslipidemia (for example, high total cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides) • Stroke • Liver and gallbladder disease • Sleep apnea and respiratory problems • Osteoarthritis (a degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint) • Gynecological problems (abnormal menses, infertility)
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Defining overweight and obesity body mass index (BMI) 704.5 BMI is accepted as a better estimate of body fatness and health risk than body weight.
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• An adult who has a BMI below 18.5 is considered underweight. • An adult who has a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 is considered healthy weight. • An adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. • An adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese. Defining overweight and obesity
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• Class I 30.0-34.9 • Class II 35.0-39.9 • Class III >40.0 Defining obesity
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Body composition
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BMI limitations • Calculating BMI is simple, quick, and inexpensive—but it does have limitations. – Very muscular people (bodybuilder and athelet) – The elderly • BMI is useful as a screening tool for individuals and as a general guideline to monitor trends in the population, but by itself is not diagnostic of an individual patient’s health status.
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Body composition Fat mass Fat free mass Fat Water, skeleton (minerals), muscle (protein), glycogen
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Body composition Males Total fat 8%-24% – Storage fat 5%-21% – Essential fat 3% Muscle 44.8% Bone 14.9% Remainder 16.3%-32.3% Females Total fat 21%-35% – Storage fat 9%-23% – Essential fat 12% Muscle 38% Bone 12% Remainder 15%-29% Gallagher D et al. Healthy percentage body fat ranges: an approach for developing guidelines based on body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(3):694-701.
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This document was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course NS 6340 at Texas Tech.

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Chapter_2_-_Overweight_and_obesity_(Fall_2011_final) -...

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