Chapter_3_-_Diabetes_(Fall_2011)

Chapter_3_-_Diabetes_(Fall_2011) - Chapter 3 Diabetes...

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Chapter 3 Diabetes Mellitus NS6340 Shu Wang
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What will we cover in this chapter? • Statistics and facts • A physiology description • A pathophysiology description – Etiology – Classification – Symptoms – diagnosis • Obesity, inflammation, nutrients and diabetes • Treatment and management
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What is diabetes? Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both . Diabetes can be associated with serious complications and premature death, but people with diabetes can take steps to control the disease and lower the risk of complications.
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Prevalence of diabetes in U.S., All Ages, 2010 Diabetes affects 25.8 million people of all ages 8.3 percent of the U.S. population Diagnosed: 18.8 million people Undiagnosed:7.0 million people Source: 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet (released Jan. 26, 2011)
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Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes among People Ages 20 Years or Older, United States, 2010 Source: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm .
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Estimated prevalence of diabetes in U.S., 2005-2008 Source: 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
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Estimated number of new cases in U.S., 2010 Source : 2007–2009 National Health Interview Survey estimates projected to the year 2010
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Estimated cost in U.S. in 2007 • Total—direct and indirect: $174 billion • Direct medical costs: $116 billion • Indirect costs: $58 billion—disability, work loss, premature mortality Diabetes Care. 2008; 31: 596-615.
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Every 24 hours • 5225 new cases of diabetes are diagnosed • 180 non-traumatic lower limb amputations are performed • 133 people begin treatment for end-stage renal disease • 634 people die of diabetes or diabetes is a contributing cause of death Source: National Diabetes Fact Sheet, CDC, 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/factsheet11.htm
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Age-adjusted Percentage of U.S. Adults Who Were Obese or Who Had Diagnosed Diabetes Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Diabetes Surveillance System http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics
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A physiology description Glucose metabolism, insulin and glucagon
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Glucose metabolism • Glycogen synthesis (Glycogenesis) • Glycogen break down (Glycogenolysis) • Synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources (gluconeogenesis)
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Glucose metabolism
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Pancreas
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Pancreas Islet of Langerhans cells (insulin and glucagon) Acinar cells (pancreatic enzymes) Duct cells (bicarbonate)
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Pancreas
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Pancreas • Islets of Langerhans – Makes up 1% or less of the pancreas by weight – The Islet cells are responsible for synthesizing both insulin and glucagon – Insulin and glucagon are the hormones that play a primary role in regulation of glucose metabolism • Insulin: secreted by Beta cells • Glucagon: secreted by Alpha cells • Somatostatin: secreted by Delta cells, inhibits the release of insulin and glucagon
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This document was uploaded on 10/27/2011 for the course NS 6340 at Texas Tech.

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Chapter_3_-_Diabetes_(Fall_2011) - Chapter 3 Diabetes...

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