Bio_Lecture_notes

Bio_Lecture_notes - of the reaction in order to reach the...

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Lecture #5 I. Life=order=organization =neat (vs. messy), vs. Disorder Law=order –to disorder Paradox: Q: How does life create order? A: Trick = coupled reaction Via enzymes =proteins II. Laws of Thermodynamics 1 st Law: Energy can be converted from one form to another, but not destroyed (E =M C^2) Machine Potential Energy Transductor Kinetic Energy Car Chemical Energy=gas Engine Mechanical Energy- Moves wheels You (body) Chemical Energy=food Muscles Mechanical Energy- Moves bones Overhead Machine Electrical Energy Light bulb Light Energy 2 nd Law: Systems tend toward disorder Entropy= measure of disorder Entropy= always increases III. Two types of chemical reactions in turns of Energy Energy Reaction Reactants relative Difficulty to products Out –released (split) Exergonic Higher potential energy easy In – consumed (join) Endergonic Lower potential energy hard IV. Catalyst=agent that speeds up reaction without being changed Enzymes=catalyst a. Needed in only small amounts b. Enzymes lower the activation energy
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Unformatted text preview: of the reaction in order to reach the transition state-Involves stretching bonds V. Q: How does an enzyme made the T.S. easier to reach? a. Enzymes grab, orient and reactants so that they react more easily than on their own. b. Enzymes= lock has a hole (cavity) that these “keys(s)” fit VI. a. 3-Dimensional structure of proteins [All enzymes are proteins and all proteins are polypeptides And all polypeptides polymer of amino acids] c. only about 5 amino acids are needed in the catalysts adaptor catalysts = temptation c. Cofactor = vitamin VII. Q: How do enzymes couple reactions (Ex. & En.) together? A: Catalyze 2 reactions at once Story: Act I: Enzyme evolve So that catalyze Glucose + Fructose --into Sucrose Mutation of an enzyme can take up to about 1 million years Act II: I.E.D. – improvised explosive device I.E.D. = ATP ATP= Adenosine, Tri, and PO4 = nucleotide = Exergonic (easy)...
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Bio_Lecture_notes - of the reaction in order to reach the...

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