E162STUDYPollution - Using the Market to Control...

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Using the Market to Control Pollution/Instrument Choice 85) Name one situation wherein a market-based instrument might be more desirable than a command-and-control tool for environmental protection. Explain your selection. Placing a tax equivalent to the damage caused by given activities. For instance, if burning a gallon of gasoline produces pollution, then a properly set gasoline tax will help consumers realize the full costs of their actions. In turn, consumers will reduce the amount or fuel purchased by changing their behavior, and preserving fossil fuels.. 86) Name one situation wherein a command-and-control tool for environmental protection might be more desirable than a market-based tool. Explain your selection. 87) What is one reason why command-and-control approaches were layered on top of traditional law-based approaches to environmental protection beginning in the 1970s? Legislators were trained in law, favoring them to legalistic regulatory approaches. Command and control standards tended to hide the cost of pollution control. As well as offering political support by symbolizing legislators. 88) Explain how a market in tradable permits for pollution control operates. permits are used to control pollution and establish a market-determined price for emissions which provides financial incentives by reducing emissions. Permits make emissions a financial opportunity for producers because if they find a way to reduce their emissions they can sell their permits to other companies. Permits also achieve major cost savings while still accomplishing their environmental objectives. Permits are granted by a government entity such as EPA or a state. Permits are granted to the producers of pollution. SO2 permits can also be granted to the people of the United States. 89.How much must Los Angeles reduce its water consumption by 2020, per state mandate? State-mandated= 20% 90. What ecosystem benefits has the rebounding population of wolves achieved in the Northern Rockies?Over populated elk were thinned; willows and other plants became thicker improving water quality 91. Some scholars argue that the massive extinctions of large animals that occurred in certain points in pre-history in other parts of the world did not occur in Africa. On what argument does this claim rest? claim-Blitzkrieg, the people and animals of Africa evolved together so the animals were not so naïve about humans 92. What aspect of Florida’s constitution make the state particularly bulnerable to adverse impacts from depopulation? Florida has a constitutional amendment that bans state income tax so they rely heavily on sales and property tax which is linked with population growth. 93.Explain why some experts argue that the solution to both overpopulation (in poorer countries)
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and underpopulation (in richer countries) is giving women more autonomy over their own lives and, in particular, their fertility choices In poorer countries giving women more control over their lives and fertility will equal lower birthrates. In richer countries giving women more support and freedom will equal higher birthrates.
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